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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in South Africa's Apartheid-Era Homelands "Bantustans"
 
Background: Ten self-governing territories for different Black ethnic groups were established as part of the policy of apartheid. Four of which (Transkei, Venda, Ciskei, and Bophutatswana) were granted "independence" by South Africa. They were only recognized only by South Africa and each other). These former South African Homelands or bantustans ceased to exist 27 April 1994 and were re-incorporated into South Africa, and all were absorbed into the new provinces. Election information on these territories is limited.
Election Results
 
 
Bophuthatswana
Self-Governing: 1 Jun 1972 –  6 Dec 1977
"Independent":  6 Dec 1977 – 27 Apr 1994
 
 
4 October 1972 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (24)*
Bophuthatswana National Party (BNP) 20
Seoposengwe Party (SP) 4
*Directly-elected seats only.
 
22-24 August 1977 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats
48 (96)*
Bophuthatswana Democratic Party (BDP) 43 (90)
National Seoposengwe Party (NSP) 5 (6)
*48 members were directly-elected; The figures in parentheses reflect the distribution of seats when both the 48 directly-elected and 48 nominated members are combined.
 
October 1982 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (72)*
Bophuthatswana Democratic Party (BDP) 72
*Directly-elected seats only.
 
27 October 1987 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (72)*
Bophuthatswana Democratic Party (BDP) 66
Progressive People's Party (PPP) 6
*Directly-elected seats only. An additional 30 members were nominated.
 
 
Ciskei
Self-Governing: 1 Aug 1972 –  4 Dec 1981
"Independent":  4 Dec 1981 – 27 Apr 1994
 
19-23 February 1973 Legislative Assembly Election
Registered Voters: N/A
Total Votes: N/A [Voter Turnout: N/A]
The first general elections to the Ciskei’s Legislative Assembly are held in the territory’s nine districts. There are no political parties; the candidates are elected to the twenty elective seats in their individual capacity, the remaining thirty seats are filled by Chiefs appointed ex officio.
Note: In June 1975, the Cape Supreme Court, sitting in Port Elizabeth, sets aside the 1973 election of Lennox Sebe and three other members of the Ciskei Legislative Assembly on the grounds of irregularities at the capital, Zwelitsha. Lennox Sebe is accordingly ineligible for the office of Chief Minister. Sebe again becomes Chief Minister of the Ciskei, having won a by-election on 24 October 1975
 
18-22 June 1978 Legislative Assembly Election
Registered Voters: N/A
Total Votes: N/A [Voter Turnout: N/A]

Party

Number of Seats (50)*

Ciskei National Independence Party (CNIP)

50

*The Legislative Assembly has a total of 137 members, 50 are directly elected and 87 are appointed.
 
4 December 1980 Referendum
Main Points: "Independence"

Registered Voters

504,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

299,731 (approx. 60%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    2,198

Total Valid Votes

297,533

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 295,891 99.45%
"No" Votes 1,642 0.55%
 
The next National Assembly Election was scheduled to take place in November 1986. However, all 23 candidates from the ruling Ciskei National Independence Party (CNIP) were unopposed and deemed to have been elected without a ballot in September 1986.
 
 
Gazankulu
Self-Governing: 1 Feb 1973– 27 Apr 1994
 
 
16-17 October 1973 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Elections are held in Gazankulu. Professor Hudson Ntsanwisi is unanimously re-elected leader of the Gazankulu Legislative Assembly.
 
7 September 1983 Legislative Assembly Election
 
KaNgwane
Self-Governing:          1981 – 18 Jun 1982
Status Suspended: 18 Jun 1982 – 31 Aug 1984
Self-Governing:   31 Aug 1984 – 27 Apr 1994
 
No election figures available.
 
KwaNdebele 
Self-Governing: 1 Apr 1981– 27 Apr 1994
 
No election figures available.
 
KwaZulu 
Self-Governing: 2 Feb 1977 – 27 Apr 1994
 
No election figures available.
 
Lebowa
Self-Governing: 2 Oct 1972 – 27 Apr 1994
 
16 March 1983 Legislative Assembly Election
Registered Voters: N/A
Total Votes: N/A [Voter Turnout: N/A]
In elections to the 100-member Lebowa Legislative Assembly, Dr. Phatudi’s ruling Lebowa People’s Party (LPP) won more than three-quarters of the forty elective seats
 
QwaQwa 
Self-Governing: 1 Nov 1974 – 27 Apr 1994
 
 
19-21 March 1975 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (20)*
Dikwankwetla Party (DP) 19
Basotho Unity Party (BUP) 1
*Directly-elected seats only. The QwaQwa Legislative Assembly had a total of 60 seats: 40 reserved for nominated tribal representatives (26 from the Bakoena tribe, 14 from the Batlokwa tribe) and 20 elected members).
 
19-21 April 1980 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (20)*
Dikwankwetla Party (DP) 20
 
1985 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

The ruling Dikwankwetla Party (DP) won the election. No further information is available.
 
1990 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

The ruling Dikwankwetla Party (DP) won the election. No further information is available.
 
 
Transkei 
Self-Governing:   May 1963 – 26 Oct 1976
"Independent": 26 Oct 1976 – 27 Apr 1994
 
 
20 November 1963 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

880,425

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

601,204 (68.3%)

Party Number of Seats
45 (109)*
Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP) 15 (71)
Democratic Party (DP) 27 (35)
Others & Independents  3  (3)
*45 members were directly elected; The figures in parentheses reflect the distribution of seats when both the directly elected and indirectly elected (Chiefs) seats are combined.
 
23 October 1968 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

907,778

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

451,916 (49.8%)

Party Number of Seats
45 (109)*
Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP) 28 (84)
Democratic Party (DP) 14 (22)
Others & Independents  3  (3)
*45 members were directly elected; The figures in parentheses reflect the distribution of seats when both the directly elected and indirectly elected (Chiefs) seats are combined.
 
24 October 1973 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

952,369

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

323,092 (33.9%)

Party % of Votes Number of Seats (45)*
Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP) 55.2% 25
Democratic Party (DP) 26.9% 10
Independents 17.9% 8
Vacant** - 2
*Directly-elected seats only.
**By-elections were held in 1974 to fill the two vacant seats, which were both won by the Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP), giving it an overall total of 27 seats.
 
29 September 1976 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

847,255

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

372,098 (43.9%)

Party Number of Seats (75)*
Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP) 69
New Democratic Party (NDP) 2
Democratic Party (DP) 1
Independent 1
Vacant** 2
*Directly-elected seats only. An additional 75 members were elected indirectly.
**Subsequent by-elections were held to fill the two vacant seats, which were both won by the Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP), giving it an overall total of 71 seats.
 
24 September 1981 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (75)*
Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP) 74
Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) 1
*Directly-elected seats only. An additional 75 members were elected indirectly.
 
September 1986 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (75)*
Transkei National Independence Party (TNIP) 57
Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) 2
Independents 16
*Directly-elected seats only. An additional 75 members were elected indirectly.
 
 
Venda 
Self-Governing:  1 Feb 1973 – 13 Sep 1979
"Independent":  13 Sep 1979 – 27 Apr 1994
 
 
15-16 August 1973 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (18)*
Venda Independence People's Party (VIPP) 13
Venda National Party (VNP) 5
*Directly-elected seats only. The Venda Legislative Assembly had a total of 60 seats (25 Chiefs, 2 Headmen, 15 members designated by Chiefs, and 18 elected members).
 
5-6 July 1978 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

123,000 (approx 52%)

Party Number of Seats (42)*
Venda Independence People's Party (VIPP) 31
Venda National Party (VNP) 11
*Directly-elected seats only. An additional 42 members were nominated.
 
July 1984 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (45)*
Venda National Party (VNP) 41
Venda Independence People's Party (VIPP) 4
*Directly-elected seats only.