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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Kenya
 
Political Profile
Political System: Emerging Democracy
President: Mwai Kibaki (DP) [PNU] [since 30 December 2002; elected 2002, re-elected 2007] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 5-year term. Electoral System: First Past The Post.
Prime Minister: Raila Odinga (ODM) [since 17 April 2008] The post of Prime Minister, which had been abolished in 1964, was restored in 2008 as part of a power-sharing agreement brokered after the disputed 27 December 2007 presidential election.
National Assembly [unicameral] (224 Seats) 210 members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post (simple majority) system, 12 are appointed by the President, and 2 (the Attorney-General and Speaker) are ex-officio members; members serve 5-year terms.
Political Situation since Independence
1963-1966 Emerging Democracy
1966-1969 Restricted Democratic Practice
1969-1982 [De-Facto] One Party State (KANU)
1982-1991 One Party State (KANU)
1991-1992 Multiparty Transition
1992-2002 Restricted Democratic Practice
2002-2007 Democracy
2007-        Emerging Democracy
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 4, Civil Liberties - 3, Status: Partly Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 4 March 2013
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election:  4 March 2013
Political Parties: CCU - Chama Cha Uma, DP - Democratic Party, EIP - Economic Independence Party, FORD-A - Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili (centrist), FORD-K - Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya (centrist), FORD-P - Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People (centrist), FPK - Federal Party of Kenya, GAP - Green African Party, KADDU - Kenya African Democratic Development Union, KADU - Kenya African Democratic Union, KADU-A - Kenya African Democratic Union-Asili, KANU - Kenya African National Union (authoritarian), KENDA - Kenya National Democratic Alliance, KNC - Kenya National Congress (centrist), KPP - Kenya People’s Party, KPTP - Kenya Patriotic Trust Party, KSC - Kenya Social Congress (left-wing), LDP - Liberal Democratic Party (centrist), LPK - Labour Party of Kenya, MGPK - Mazingira Green Party of Kenya, NARC - National Rainbow Coalition, NARC-K National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya, NDP - National Development Party (centrist), NFK - New Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya, NLP - National Labour Party, NPK - National Party of Kenya, ODM - Orange Democratic Movement, ODM-K - Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya, PDP - Peoples Democratic Party, PICK - Party of Independent Candidates of Kenya, PPK - Peoples Party of Kenya, RPK - Republican Party of Kenya, SAFINA - Safina [Ark] (centrist), SDP - Social Democratic Party, SKS - Sisi Kwa Sisi, SPK - Shirikisho Party of Kenya, SSA - Saba Saba Asili, UDM - United Democratic Movement, UMMA - Umma Patriotic Party of Kenya, UPPK - United Patriotic Party of Kenya, WCP - Workers Congress Party of Kenya.
Coalitions: National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) [Contested the 2002 Presidential and National Assembly Elections] The Coalition’s main member parties are the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Democratic Party (DP), Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya (FORD-K).
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential: 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1961, 1963, 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007
--Single Party: 1969, 1974, 1979, 1983, 1988
Constitutional Referendums: 2005, 2010
 
 
1961 Legislative Council Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (33)

Kenya African National Union (KANU)

19

Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)

11

*An additional 20 seats were reserved for communal interests (10 for Europeans, 8 for Asians, and 2 for Arabs). Another 12 were filled by special members, bringing the total number of Legislative Council members to 65.
 
18-26 May 1963 House of Representatives Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (124)

Kenya African National Union (KANU)

83

Others

41

 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Kenya African National Union (KANU)
6 December 1969 National Assembly Election (158 Seats)
14 October 1974 National Assembly Election (158 Seats)
8 November 1979 National Assembly Election (158 Seats)
26 September 1983 National Assembly Election (153 Seats)
21 March 1988 National Assembly Election (188 Seats)
Note: Jomo Kenyatta was Prime Minister of Kenya from its independence on 12 December 1963 to 12 December 1964 when he became President of the Republic. He was re-elected unopposed on 22 December 1969 and again in 1974. He died in office on 22 August 1978. Vice President Daniel arap Moi succeeded Kenyatta and the National Assembly elected him President on 10 October 1978. He was re-elected unopposed by the National Assembly in 1979, 1983, and 1988.
 
29 December 1992 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

7,900,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

5,400,324

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Daniel arap Moi (KANU) 1,962,866 36.35%
Kenneth Matiba (FORD-A) 1,404,266 26.00%
Mwai Kibaki (DP) 1,050,617 19.45%
Oginga Odinga (FORD-K) 944,197 17.48%
George Anyona (KSC) 14,273 0.26%
Chibule wa Tsuma (KNC) 10,221 0.19%
Harun Mwau (PICK) 8,118 0.15%
Mukaru Ng'ang'a (KENDA) 5,766 0.11%
 
29 December 1992 National Assembly Election [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

7,900,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats
188 (200)*

Kenya African National Union (KANU) 100 (112)
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya (FORD-K) 31 (31)
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili (FORD-A) 31 (31)
Democratic Party (DP) 23 (23)
Kenya Social Congress (KSC) 1 (1)
Kenya National Congress (KNC) 1 (1)
Party of Independent Candidates of Kenya (PICK) 1 (1)
*188 members were directly elected; 12 were appointed by the President. Figures in parentheses reflect the distribution of seats after the presidential appointees were added.
 
29 December 1997 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

9,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

6,096,479

Candidate (Party)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Daniel arap Moi (KANU)

2,445,801

40.12%

Mwai Kibaki (DP)

1,895,527

31.09%

Raila Odinga (NDP)

665,725

10.92%

Michael Wamalwa (FORD-K)

505,542

8.29%

Charity Ngilu (SDP)

469,807

7.71%

Martin Shikuku (FORD-A)

36,302

0.60%

Katama Mkangi (KNC)

23,484

0.39%

George Anyona (KSC)

16,294

0.27%

Kimani wa Nyoike (FORD-P)

8,564

0.14%

Koigi wa Wamwere (KENDA)

7,463

0.12%

Munyua Waiyaki (UPPK)

6,103

0.10%

Godfrey M' Mwereria (GAP)

4,555

0.07%

Wangari Maathai (LPK)

4,133

0.07%

Stephen Oludhe (EIP)

3,653

0.06%

David Waweru Ng’ethe (UMMA)

3,526

0.06%

 
29 December 1997 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

9,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (210)*
Kenya African National Union (KANU) 107 (113)
Democratic Party (DP) 39 (41)
National Development Party (NDP) 21 (22)
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya (FORD-K) 17 (18)
Social Democratic Party (SDP) 15 (16)
Safina (SAFINA) 5 (6)
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya (FORD-P) 3 (3)
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili (FORD-A) 1 (1)
Kenya Social Congress (KSC) 1 (1)
Shirikisho Party of Kenya (SPK) 1 (1)
*210 members were directly elected; 12 were appointed by the President. Figures in parentheses reflect the distribution of seats after the Presidential appointees were added.
 
27 December 2002 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

10,451,150

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (approx. 57%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

  5,861,904

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Mwai Kibaki (DP) [NARC] 3,646,277 62.20%
Uhuru Kenyatta (KANU) 1,835,890 31.32%
Simeon Nyachae (FORD-P) 345,152 5.89%
James Orengo (SDP) 24,524 0.42%
David Waweru Ng'ethe (CCU) 10,061 0.17%
 
27 December 2002 National Assembly Election [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

10,451,150

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/[Coalition] Number of Seats
210 (224)*
National Rainbow Coalition [NARC] 125 (132)

Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
59
Democratic Party (DP) 39
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya (FORD-K) 21
National Party of Kenya (NPK) 6
Kenya African National Union (KANU) 64 (68)
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People (FORD-P) 14 (15)
Sisi Kwa Sisi (SKS) 2 (2)
Safina (SAFINA) 2 (2)
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili (FORD-A) 2 (2)
Shirikisho Party of Kenya (SPK) 1 (1)
*210 members were directly elected; 12 were appointed by the President. Figures in parentheses reflect the distribution of seats after the Presidential appointees were added.
 
21 November 2005 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Executive President and non-executive Prime Minister, Two-level devolution of power - National & Provincial
Ballot Question: Are you for or against the ratification of the proposed new constitution?

Registered Voters

11,595,201

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

  6,158,072

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 2,578,831 41.88%
"No" Votes 3,579,241 58.12%
 
27 December 2007 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

14,296,180

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

  9,877,028

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Mwai Kibaki (DP) [PNU] 4,584,721 46.42%
Raila Odinga (ODM) 4,352,993 44.07%
Kalonzo Musyoka (ODM-K) 879,903 8.91%
Joseph Karani (KPTP) 21,171 0.21%
Pius Muiru (KPP) 9,667 0.10%
Nazlin Omar (WCP) 8,624 0.09%
Kenneth Matiba (SSA) 8,046 0.08%
David Waweru Ng'ethe (CCU) 5,976 0.06%
Nixon Kukubo (RPK) 5,927 0.06%
 
27 December 2007 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

14,296,180

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/[Coalition] Number of Seats (210)*
Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) & Allies 102

Orange Democratic Movement (ODM)
99
National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) 3
Party of National Unity [PNU] & Allies 78

Party of National Unity (PNU)
43
Kenya African National Union (KANU) 14
Safina (SAFINA) 5
National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya (NARC-K) 4
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People (FORD-P) 3
Democratic Party (DP) 2
New Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya (NFK) 2
Sisi Kwa Sisi (SKS) 2
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili (FORD-A) 1
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya (FORD-K) 1
Mazingira Green Party of Kenya (MGPK) 1
Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya (ODM-K) 16
Chama Cha Uma (CCU) 2
Party of Independent Candidates of Kenya (PICK) 2
Kenya African Democratic Development Union (KADDU) 1
Kenya African Democratic Union-Asili (KADU-A) 1
Kenya National Democratic Alliance (KENDA) 1
National Labour Party (NLP) 1
Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) 1
Peoples Party of Kenya (PPK) 1
United Democratic Movement (UDM) 1
Vacant 3
*210 members were directly elected; an additional 12 are appointed by the President.
 
4 August 2010 Constitutional Referendum [Results by Province]
Main Points: Reduction of Presidential powers, Creation of an upper house of Parliament (Senate), Two-level devolution of power - National & County.
Ballot Question: Do you approve the proposed new Constitution?

Registered Voters

12,616,627

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  9,106,285 (72.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     218,633

Total Valid Votes

  8,887,652

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 6,092,593 68.55%
"No" Votes 2,795,059 31.45%