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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Congo-Brazzaville [Republic of the Congo]
 
Political Profile
Political System: Restricted Democratic Practice
President: Denis Sassou-Nguesso (PCT) [since 25 October 1997; seized power in 1997 military rebellion, elected 2002, re-elected 2009]. The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 7-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Parliament [bicameral]
--Senate (66 Seats) Members are indirectly elected by district, regional, and local councils to serve 6-year terms with one-half being renewed every 3 years.
--National Assembly (139 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the two round (run-off) system; members serve 5-year terms.
Electoral Authority: National Commission for the Organization of Elections
Political Situation since Independence
1960-1963 Emerging Democracy
1963         Transitional Government
1963-1964 [De-Facto] One Party State (MNR)
1964-1968 One Party State (MNR)
1968-1969 Military Regime
1969-1977 One Party State (PCT)
1977-1979 Military Regime & One Party State (PCT)
1979-1990 One Party State (PCT)
1990-1992 Multiparty Transition
1992-1997 Democracy
1997-2002 Transitional Period [Civil War]
2002-        Restricted Democratic Practice
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 6, Civil Liberties - 5, Status: Not Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2016
Next Scheduled Senatorial Election: 2014; 2017
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election: 2017
Political Parties: ADENA - National Democratic Alliance, APC - Take Action for Congo, CDR - Convention for Democracy and the Republic, Club 2002-PUR - Club 2002-Party for Unity and the Republic, CNDD - National Convention for Democracy and Development, CODESA - Convention for Democracy and Salvation, CPR - Perspectives and Realities Club, FDN - New Democratic Forces, FDP - Democratic and Patriotic Forces, FDS - Forum for Democracy and Solidarity, JEM - Youth Movement, Life Party*, MAR - Action Movement for Renewal, MARS - African Movement for Social Renaissance, MCDDI - Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development, MDP - Movement for Democracy and Progress, MNR - National Revolutionary Movement, MSA - African Socialist Movement, MSD - Movement for Solidarity and Development, MUST - Movement for Unity, Solidarity, and Labor, PANA - National Party, PAP - Party of the Poor, PCR - Congolese, Party of Renewal, PCT - Congolese Labor Party, PPC - Congolese Progressive Party, PRDC - Party for the Reconstruction and Development of Congo, PRL - Republican and Liberal Party, RC - Citizens' Rally, RDD - Rally for Democracy and Development, RDPS - Rally for Democracy and Social Progress, RNDP - National Rally for Democracy and Progress, UCR - Congolese Union of Republicans, UDC - Union for Congolese Democrats, UDDIA - Democratic Union for the Defense of African Interests, UDPS - Union for Development and Social Progress, UDR - Union for Democracy and Republic, UDR-Mwinda - Union for Democracy and the Republic, UFD - Union of Democratic Forces, UNDP - National Union for Democracy and Progress, UP - Union for Progress, UPADS - Pan-African Union for Social Democracy, UPDP - Patriotic Union for Democracy and Progress, UPRN - Patriotic Union for National Renewal, UPSD - Union for Social Progress and Democracy, UR - Union for the Republic, URD - Union for Democratic Renewal, URN - Union for National Redressment.
Coalitions: African Socialist Movement-Congolese Progressive Party (MSA-PPC) [Contested the 1959 Election]; Presidential Tendency Coalition [Contested the 1993 National Assembly Election] The main parties in the coalition are the Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS), Rally for Democracy and Development (RDD), Union of Democratic Forces (UFD), Congolese Party of Renewal (PCR), Union for Congolese Democracy (UDC), and the Union for Development and Social Progress (UDPS); Opposition Coalition [Contested the 1993 National Assembly Election] Member parties include the Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI), Congolese Labor Party (PCT), Rally for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS), and Union for Democratic Renewal (URD); Congolese Labor Party-United Democratic Forces (PCT-FDU) [Contested the 2002 Presidential and National Assembly Elections] The coalition is led by the Congolese Labor Party (PCT), while the United Democratic Forces (FDU) is made up of several small parties.
*Political party acronym not available.
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty 1992, 2002, 2009
--Single-Party: 1961
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1959, 1992, 1993, 2002, 2007, 2012
--Single-Party: 1963, 1973, 1979, 1984, 1989
Constitutional Referendums: 1963, 1973, 1979, 1992, 2002
 
 
14 June 1959 Territorial Assembly Election

Registered Voters

420,809

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

332,749 (79.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,486

Total Valid Votes

331,263

Party/[Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (61)
Democratic Union for the Defense of African Interests (UDDIA) 196,985 59.46% 51
African Socialist Movement-Congolese Progressive Party [MSA-PPC] 134,278 40.54% 10
 
26 March 1961 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

460,270

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

415,843 (90.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  10,254

Total Valid Votes

405,589

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Fulbert Youlou (UDDIA) 405,589 100.00%
 
08 December 1963 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: A President who may be re-elected once, one-party system

Registered Voters

539,219

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

494,279 (91.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    6,561

Total Valid Votes

487,718

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 419,893 86.09%
"No" Votes 67,825 13.91%
 
11 December 1963 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

539,219

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

494,279 (91.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  54,644

Total Valid Votes

439,635

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (55)
National Revolutionary Movement (MNR) 439,635 100.00% 55
*The National Revolutionary Movement (MNR) was declared the sole legal party in July 1964.
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: National Revolutionary Movement (MNR)
Note: Following the 11 December 1963 National Assembly election, Alphonse Massamba-Débat was elected president by an electoral college.
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Congolese Labor Party (PCT)
24 June 1973 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential republic, one-party system

Registered Voters

673,223

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

559,756 (83.1%)

"Yes" Votes

77.66%

"No" Votes

22.34%

24 June 1973 People's National Assembly Election (115 Seats)

Registered Voters

662,098

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

550,739 (83.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

175,357

Total Valid Votes

375,382 (68.16%)

PCT

375,382 (100.00%)

8 July 1979 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Not Available

Registered Voters

826,193

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

746,082 (90.3%)

"Yes" Votes

96.93%

"No" Votes

  3.07%

8 July 1979 People's National Assembly Election (153 Seats)

Registered Voters

826,193

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

746,082 (90.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  20,101

Total Valid Votes

725,981 (97.31%)

PCT

725,981 (100.00%)

23 September 1984 People's National Assembly Election (153 Seats)

Registered Voters

927,944

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

868,990 (93.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  15,822

Total Valid Votes

853,168 (98.18%)

PCT

853,168 (100.00%)

24 September 1989 People's National Assembly Election (133 Seats)

Registered Voters

1,004,320

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   900,357 (89.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     29,897

Total Valid Votes

   870,460 (96.68%)

PCT

   870,460 (100.00%)

Note: Marien Ngouabi, who had been in power since 1969, was elected chairman of the Central Committee of the Congolese Labor Party (PCT) on 30 December 1974. Following the assassination of Ngouabi in 1977 and a brief period of military rule, Denis Sassou-Nguesso was elected President of the PCT Central Committee in 1979. The President [Chairman] of the PCT Central Committee was also President of the Republic. He was re-elected in July 1984 and again in July 1989.
 
15 March 1992 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential Republic, Two Chamber Parliament, and division of powers

Registered Voters

1,232,384

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   874,297 (70.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     10,408

Total Valid Votes

   863.889

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 832,115 96.32%
"No" Votes 31,774 3.68%
 
24 June & 19 July 1992 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (125)
Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS) 39
Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI) 29
Congolese Labor Party (PCT) 18
Rally for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS) 9
Rally for Democracy and Development (RDD) 5
Union of Democratic Forces (UFD) 3
Union for Social Progress and Democracy (UPSD) 2
National Democratic Alliance (ADENA) 1
National Convention for Democracy and Development (CNDD) 1
Democratic and Patriotic Forces (FDP) 1
Forum for Democracy and Solidarity (FDS) 1
African Movement for Social Renaissance (MARS) 1
National Party (PANA) 1
Party for the Reconstruction and Development of Congo (PRDC) 1
National Rally for Democracy and Progress (RNDP) 1
Union of Congolese Democrats (UDC) 1
National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP) 1
Union for Progress (UP) 1
Union for National Redressment (URN) 1
Independents 6
Vacant 2
 
August 1992 Presidential Election
First Round (8 August 1992)*

Registered Voters

1,332,821

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   794,181 (59.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       8,200

Total Valid Votes

   785,981

Second Round (16 August 1992)

Registered Voters

1,350,241

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   831,827 (61.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       6,036

Total Valid Votes

   825,791

Candidate (Party) First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
Pascal Lissouba (UPADS) 282,020 35.97% 506,395 61.32%
Bernard Kolélas (MCDDI) 159,682 20.37% 319,396 38.68%
Denis Sassou-Nguesso (PCT) 131,346 16.75% - -
André Milongo (UDR) 79,979 10.20% - -
Jean-Pierre Thystère Tchicaya (RDPS) 45,466 5.80% - -
Joachim Yhombi-Opango (RDD) 27,953 3.57% - -
David Charles Ganao (UFD) 22,514 2.87% - -
Paul Kaya 15,277 1.95% - -
Auguste-Célestin Gongarad Nkoua (UPDP) 5,272 0.67% - -
Clément Miérassa (PSDC) 4,298 0.55% - -
Jean-Martin Mbemba (UP) 3,558 0.45% - -
Alphonse Poaty-Souchlaty (URP) 2,378 0.30% - -
Gabriel Bokilo (URN) 2,296 0.29% - -
Agnès Bandou (RDPSEL) 980 0.12% - -
Antoine Makangou Loukamy (AMICALE) 649 0.08% - -
Corentin Auguste Kouba (RUDL) 413 0.05% - -
*The final results state that a total of 785,981 valid votes were cast in the election, but the distribution of votes among candidates totals 784,081 (a difference of 1,900 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of votes cast. Results based on the first figure (785,981 valid votes) are as follows: Lissouba (35.88%), Kolélas (20.32%), Sassou-Nguesso (16.71%), Milongo (10.18%), Tchicaya (5.78%), Yhombi-Opango (3.56%), Ganao (2.86%), Kaya (1.94%), Nkoua (0.67%), Miérassa (0.55%), Mbemba (0.45%), Poaty-Souchlaty (0.30%), Bokilo (0.29%), Bandou (0.12%), Loukamy (0.08%), and Kouba (0.05%).
 
2 May & 6 June 1993 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/Coalition Number of Seats (125)
Presidential Tendency 65

Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS)
47
Rally for Democracy and Development (RDD) 6
Union of Democratic Forces (UFD) 3
Congolese Party of Renewal (PCR) 2
Union for Congolese Democrats (UDC) 1
Union for Development and Social Progress (UDPS) 1
Others 5
Opposition Coalition 56

Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI)
28
Congolese Labor Party (PCT) 15
Rally for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS) 10
Union for Democratic Renewal (URD) 2
Pro-PCT Independent 1
Union for Democracy and Republic (UDR) 2
Patriotic Union for National Renewal (UPRN) 1
Independent 1
 
20 January 2002 Constitutional Referendum [Results by Region]
Main Points: Extension of Presidential term from 5 to 7 years, Abolition of the post of Prime Minister, Creation of a new bicameral assembly consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives

Registered Voters

1,701,415

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,318,238 (77.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     49,908

Total Valid Votes

1,268,330

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 1,113,955 87.83%
"No" Votes 154,375 12.17%
 
10 March 2002 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

1,733,943

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,295,319 (74.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     92,708

Total Valid Votes

1,202,611

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Denis Sassou-Nguesso (PCT) [PCT-FDU] 1,075,247 89.41%
Joseph Kignoumbi Kia Mboungou (UPADS) 33,154 2.76%
Angèle Bandou (PAP) 27,849 2.32%
Jean-Félix Demba Tello 20,252 1.68%
Luc Adamo Matela (CDR) 19,074 1.59%
Côme Manckasse (UCR) 15,054 1.25%
Bonaventure Mizidy (PRL) 11,981 1.00%
 
26 May & 23 June 2002 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

1,700,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/[Coalition] Number of Seats (137)
Congolese Labor Party-United Democratic Forces [PCT-FDU] 83

Congolese Labor Party (PCT)
53
United Democratic Forces (FDU) 30
Union for Democracy and the Republic (UDR-Mwinda) 6
Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS) 3
Convention for Democracy and Salvation (CODESA) 2
Others & Independents 35
Vacant* 8
*Due to militia activity in the Pool Region, voting did not take place in electoral districts.
 
24 June & 5 August 2007 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (137)
Congolese Labor Party (PCT) and allies 88

Congolese Labor Party (PCT)
46
Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI) 11
Action Movement for Renewal (MAR) 5
Movement for Solidarity and Development (MSD) 5
Club 2002-Party for Unity and the Republic (Club 2002-PUR) 3
Take Action for Congo (APC) 3
New Democratic Forces (FDN) 2
Union for the Republic (UR) 2
Patriotic Union for Democracy and Progress (UPDP) 2
Union for Progress (UP) 2
Rally for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS) 2
Movement for Democracy and Progress (MDP) 1
Union of Democratic Forces (UFD) 1
Youth Movement (JEM) 1
Citizens' Rally (RC) 1
Life Party 1
Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS) 11
Union for Democracy and the Republic (UDR-Mwinda) 1
Independents 37
*Due to procedural and organizational problems in the first round, a re-run of the vote was held in five districts on 8 July and fourteen others on 15 July 2007. In the second round, voting in two districts was delayed until 19 & 20 August.
 
12 July 2009 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

2,078,802

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,380,651 (66.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     38,409

Total Valid Votes

1,342,242

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Denis Sassou-Nguesso (PCT) [RMP]* 1,055,117 78.61%
Joseph Kignoumbi Kia Mboungou 100,181 7.46%
Nicéphore Fylla de Saint-Eudes (PRL) 93,749 6.98%
Mathias Dzon (UPRN) [ARD] 30,861 2.30%
Joseph Hondjuila Miokono 27,060 2.02%
Guy-Romain Kimfoussia (UDR-Mwinda) 11,678 0.87%
Jean François Tchibinda Kouangou 5,475 0.41%
Anguios Nganguia Engambé 4,064 0.30%
Bonaventure Mizidy 3,594 0.27%
Clément Miérassa (PSDC) 3,305 0.25%
Bertin Pandi-Ngouari 2,749 0.20%
Marion Madzimba Ehouango (ANME) 2,612 0.19%
Jean Ebina 1,797 0.13%
 
15 July & 5 August 2012 National Assembly Election [Seats Won by Region]

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (139)
Congolese Labor Party (PCT) and allies 117

Congolese Labor Party (PCT)
89
Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI) 7
Rally for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS) 5
Action Movement for Renewal (MAR) 4
Citizens' Rally (RC) 3
Movement for Unity, Solidarity, and Labor (MUST) 2
Patriotic Union for Democracy and Progress (UPDP) 2
Club 2002-Party for Unity and the Republic (Club 2002-PUR) 1
Perspectives and Realities Club (CPR) 1
Republican and Liberal Party (PRL) 1
Union of Democratic Forces (UFD) 1
Union for the Republic (UR) 1
Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS) 7
Independents 12
Vacant* 3
*Elections were postponed in three Brazzaville electoral districts (Ouenzé 1, Talangaï 1, and Talangaï 2).