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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Zimbabwe
 
Political Profile
Political System: Restricted Democratic Practice
President: Robert G. Mugabe (ZANU-PF) [since 18 April 1980; served as Prime Minister 1980-1987, elected president by the parliament in 1987, re-elected directly in 1990, 1996 and 2002] The President is directly elected by popular vote for a 6-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Parliament [bicameral]
--Senate (66 Seats) 50 members elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post system, 6 members are nominated by the president, and 10 seats are occupied by traditional chiefs chosen in separate elections; members serve 5-year terms.
--House of Assembly (150 Seats) 120 members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post system, 12 members are nominated by the president, 10 traditional chiefs are chosen by their peers in separate elections, and 8 members are provincial governors appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms. 
Political Situation since Independence
1980-1987 Emerging Democracy
1987-        Restricted Democratic Practice
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 6, Civil Liberties - 6, Status: Not Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2013
Next Scheduled Senatorial Election: 2013
Next Scheduled House of Assembly Election: 2013
Political Parties: Rhodesia/Zimbabwe-Rhodesia (1965-1980) CP - Centre Party, RA - Republican Alliance, RAP - Rhodesian Action Party, RF - Rhodesian Front, NDU - National Democratic Union, NPP - National People's Party, NUF - National Unifying Force, UNFP - United National Federal Party, ZANU - Zimbabwe African National Union, ZUPO - Zimbabwe United People's Organization; Zimbabwe (1980-Present) ANP - African National Party, CAZ - Conservative Alliance of Zimbabwe, FPZ - Forum Party of Zimbabwe, IZG - Independent Zimbabwe Group, MDC - Movement for Democratic Change (left-wing, social-democratic), MOP-CD - Multi-Racial Open Party-Christian Democrats, NAGG - National Alliance for Good Governance, NDU - National Democratic Union, NFZ - National Front of Zimbabwe, PAFA - Peace Action is Freedom for All, RF - Rhodesian Front, UANC - United National African Council, UNFP - United National Federal Party, UP - United Parties, UPAM - United People's Association of Matabeleland, ZA - Zimbabwe Aristocrats, ZANU - Zimbabwe African National Union, ZANU-Ndonga - Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (right-wing, conservative), ZANU-PF - Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (authoritarian), ZAPU - Zimbabwe African People's Union, ZAPU-FP - Zimbabwe African People's Union-Federal Party, ZCP - Zimbabwe Congress Party, ZDP - Zimbabwe Democratic Party, ZFP - Zimbabwe Federal Party, ZIYA - Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance, ZPDP - Zimbabwe People's Democratic Party, ZUM - Zimbabwe Unity Movement.
 
Election Results 
 
 
Legislative: 1965, 1970, 1974, 1977
Referendum: 1964, 1969, 1979, 2000
 
Legislative: 1979
 
Presidential: 1990, 1996, 2002
Legislative
     House of Assembly: 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005
     Senate: 2005
Constitutional Referendum: 2000
 
 
Elections in Rhodesia
 
05 November 1964 Referendum*
Ballot Question: Are you in favour of or against Southern Rhodesia obtaining independence on the basis of the Constitution of Southern Rhodesia 1961?
Registered Voters   105,444
Total Votes          65,242 [Voter Turnout: 61.9%]
Invalid/Blank Votes     965
Total Valid Votes    64,277

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

58,176

90.51%

"No" Votes

6,101

09.49%

*The results are not recognized internationally.
 
07 May 1965 House of Assembly Election*
Registered Voters   N/A ("A" Roll - 92,256(approx.)**; "B" Roll - 10,544)
Total Votes         N/A ("A" Roll - N/A; "B" Roll - N/A) [Voter Turnout: N/A]

Party

"A" Roll

"B" Roll

Number of Seats (75)

Number of Seats (50)

Number of Seats (15)

Rhodesian Front (RF)

50

-

50

National People’s Party (NPP)

-

10

10

Others

-

05

05

*The elections were held with two rolls. The "A" roll represented constituencies with largely European [White] populations. Blacks and other minorities could compete in elections for "A" roll seats, but stringent qualification requirements effectively excluded most of these groups. The "B" roll generally represented constituencies with largely non-white populations.
**Approximately 90,000 registered voters on the "A" Roll were European [White] and 2,256 were Black.
 
20 June 1969 Referendum
Issue 1 (New Constitution)
Main Points: Voting Qualifications (that exclude most Africans from the voting process), Unicameral Legislature
Registered Voters   94,686
Total Votes         76,706 [Voter Turnout: 81.0%]
Invalid/Blank Votes  1,206
Total Valid Votes   75,500
Issue 2
Main Points: Declaration of the Republic
Registered Voters   94,686
Total Votes         76,664 [Voter Turnout: 81.0%]
Invalid/Blank Votes  1,207
Total Valid Votes   75,457

Results

Issue 1

Issue 2

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

54,724

72.48%

61,130

81.01%

"No" Votes

20,776

27.52%

14,327

18.99%

 
10 April 1970 House of Assembly Election*
Registered Voters   N/A ("A" Roll - 65,000 (approx.); "B" Roll - N/A)
Total Votes         N/A ("A" Roll - N/A; "B" Roll - N/A) [Voter Turnout: N/A]
Invalid/Blank Votes N/A ("A" Roll - N/A; "B" Roll - N/A)
Total Valid Votes   N/A ("A" Roll - 51,606; "B" Roll - N/A)

Party

"A" Roll

"B" Roll

Number of Seats (76)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (50)

Number of Seats (16)

Rhodesian Front (RF)

40,018

77.55%

50

-

50

Republican Alliance (RA)

5,959

11.55%

-

-

-

Centre Party (CP)

5,629

10.91%

-

07

07

Other

-

-

-

01

01

Members selected by African Chiefs

-

-

-

08

08

*The elections were held with two rolls. The "A" roll represented constituencies with largely European [White] populations. Blacks and other minorities could compete in elections for "A" roll seats, but stringent qualification requirements effectively excluded most of these groups. The "B" roll generally represented constituencies with largely non-white populations.
 
31 July 1974 House of Assembly Election*/**
Registered Voters  N/A ("A" Roll - N/A; "B" Roll - N/A)
Total Votes        N/A ("A" Roll - N/A; "B" Roll - N/A) [Voter Turnout: N/A]

Party

"A" Roll

"B" Roll

Number of Seats (76)

Number of Seats (50)

Number of Seats (16)

Rhodesian Front (RF)

50

-

50

Others

-

08

08

Members selected by African Chiefs

-

08

08

*The elections were held with two rolls. The "A" roll represented constituencies with largely European [White] populations. Blacks and other minorities could compete in elections for "A" roll seats, but stringent qualification requirements effectively excluded most of these groups. The "B" roll generally represented constituencies with largely non-white populations.
**The United African National Council (UANC) boycotted elections for the African "B" roll seats.
 
31 August 1977 House of Assembly Election*
Registered Voters  N/A ("A" Roll - N/A; "B" Roll - N/A)
Total Votes        N/A ("A" Roll - N/A; "B" Roll - N/A) [Voter Turnout: N/A]

Party

"A" Roll

"B" Roll

Number of Seats (76)

Number of Seats (50)

Number of Seats (16)

Rhodesian Front (RF)

50

-

50

National Unifying Force (NUF)

-

-

-

Rhodesian Action Party (RAP)

-

-

-

Others

-

08

08

Members selected by African Chiefs

-

08

08

*The elections were held with two rolls. The "A" roll represented constituencies with largely European [White] populations. Blacks and other minorities could compete in elections for "A" roll seats, but stringent qualification requirements effectively excluded most of these groups. The "B" roll generally represented constituencies with largely non-white populations.
 
30 January 1979 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential Republic, Equal voting rights for all citizens
Registered Voters   94,900
Total Votes         67,838 [Voter Turnout: 71.5%]
Invalid/Blank Votes    764
Total Valid Votes   67,074

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

57,269

85.38%

"No" Votes

9,805

14.62%

 
Elections in Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
 
April 1979 House of Assembly Election
Registered Voters   2,900,000 (approx.)
Total Votes         1,869,077 [Voter Turnout: 64.5% (approx.)]
Invalid/Blank Votes    66,319
Total Valid Votes   1,802,758

Party

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (72)

United National African Council (UANC)

1,212,639

67.27%

51

Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)

262,928

14.58%

12

United National Federal Party (UNFP)

194,446

10.79%

09

Zimbabwe United People's Organization (ZUPO)

114,570

6.36%

-

National Democratic Union (NDU)

18,175

1.00%

-

 
Elections in Zimbabwe
 
February 1980 House of Assembly Election*

 

White Roll

Common Roll

Registered Voters

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Not Available

2,702,275

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Not Available

     52,746

Total Valid Votes

2,665,931

16,402

2,649,529

Party

White Roll
(14 February 1980)

Common Roll
(27-29 February 1980)

Number of Seats (100)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (20)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (80)

Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)

-

-

-

1,668,992

63.0%

57

57

Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU)

-

-

-

638,879

24.1%

20

20

Rhodesian Front (RF)

13,621

83.0%

20

-

-

-

20

United African National Council (UANC)

-

-

-

219,307

8.3%

03

03

Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga
(ZANU-Ndonga)

-

-

-

53,343

2.0%

-

-

Zimbabwe Democratic Party (ZDP)

-

-

-

28,181

1.1%

-

-

National Front of Zimbabwe (NFZ)

-

-

-

18,794

0.7%

-

-

National Democratic Union (NDU)

-

-

-

15,056

0.6%

-

-

United National Federal Party (UNFP)

-

-

-

5,796

0.2%

-

-

United People’s Association of Matabeleland (UPAM)

-

-

-

1,181

0.0%

-

-

Independents

2,781

17.0%

-

-

-

-

-

*The elections were held with a ‘White roll’ and ‘Common roll’ system. 20 of the 100 seats were reserved for the white minority.
 
June/July 1985 House of Assembly Election*
 

White Roll

Common Roll

Registered Voters

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,007,899 (N/A)

35,753 (N/A)

2,972,146 (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     80,573

  1,712

     78,861

Total Valid Votes

2,927,326

34,041

2,893,285

Party

White Roll
(27 June 1985)

Common Roll (01-02 July 1985)

Number of Seats (100)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (20)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (80)

Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)

311

0.9%

-

2,233,320

77.2%

64

64

Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU)

-

-

-

558,771

19.3%

15

15

Conservative Alliance of Zimbabwe (CAZ)

18,731

55.0%

15

-

-

-

15

Independent Zimbabwe Group (IZG)

13,513

39.7%

04

-

-

-

04

Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga
(ZANU-Ndonga)

-

-

-

36,054

1.2%

01

01

United African National Council (UANC)

-

-

-

64,764

2.2%

-

-

National Democratic Union (NDU)

-

-

-

295

0.0%

-

-

National Front of Zimbabwe (NFZ)

-

-

-

81

0.0%

-

-

Independents

1,486

4.4%

01

-

-

-

01

*The elections were held with a ‘White roll’ and ‘Common roll’ system. 20 of the 100 seats were reserved for the white minority.
 
23 March 1990 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

4,799,333

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,587,204 (53.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   146,388

Total Valid Votes

2,440,816

Candidate (Party)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Robert Mugabe (ZANU-PF)

2,026,976

83.05%

Edgar Tekere (ZUM)

413,840

16.95%

 
23 March 1990 House of Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,237,846 (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   139,653

Total Valid Votes

2,098,193

Party

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (120)*

Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF)

1,690,071

80.54%

117

Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM)

369,031

17.59%

02

Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga)

19,448

0.93%

01

United African National Council (UANC)

11,191

0.53%

-

National Democratic Union (NDU)

498

0.02%

-

Independents

7,954

0.38%

-

*120 seats are filled through direct election; 30 seats are reserved for appointees.
 
8-9 April 1995 House of Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,468,191 (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     67,173

Total Valid Votes

1,405,018

Party

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (120)**

Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF)

1,143,349

81.38%

118

Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga)

97,470

6.94%

02

Forum Party of Zimbabwe (FPZ)

84,219

5.99%

-

Zimbabwe Congress Party (ZCP)

3,779

0.27%

-

Zimbabwe Federal Party (ZFP)

3,381

0.24%

-

Zimbabwe Aristocrats (ZA)

1,571

0.11%

-

African National Party (ANP)

431

0.03%

-

Independents

70,818

5.04%

-

*Boycotted by the Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM) and United Parties (UP).
**120 seats are filled through direct election; 30 seats are reserved for appointees.
 
16-17 March 1996 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

4,822,289

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,557,558 (32.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     43,497

Total Valid Votes

1,514,061

Candidate (Party)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Robert Mugabe (ZANU-PF)

1,404,501

92.76%

Abel Muzorewa (UP)

72,600

4.80%

Ndabaningi Sithole (ZANU-Ndonga)

36,960

2.44%

*Sithole and Muzorewa withdrew during the week prior to balloting but their names remained on the ballot and both garnered votes.
 
12-13 February 2000 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Consolidation of presidential powers, government allowed to confiscate white-owned land for redistribution to black farmers without compensation, government officials given immunity from prosecution

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,312,738 (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     36,774

Total Valid Votes

1,275,964

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

578,210

45.32%

"No" Votes

697,754

54.68%

 
24-25 June 2000 House of Assembly Election

Registered Voters

5,049,815

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,493,925

Party

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (120)*

Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF)

1,212,302

48.6%

62

Movement for Democratic Change (MDC)

1,171,051

47.0%

57

Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga)

17,629

0.7%

01

Others

92,943

3.7%

-

*120 seats are filled through direct election; 30 seats are reserved for appointees.
 
9-11 March 2002 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

5,647,812

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,130,913 (55.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   132,155

Total Valid Votes

2,998,758

Candidate (Party)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Robert Mugabe (ZANU-PF)

1,685,212

56.2%

Morgan Tsvangirai (MDC)

1,258,401

42.0%

Wilson Kumbula (ZANU-Ndonga)

31,368

1.0%

Shakespeare Maya (NAGG)

11,906

0.4%

Paul Siwela

11,871

0.4%

 
31 March 2005 House of Assembly Election

Registered Voters

5,658,624

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,696,670 (47.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     62,025

Total Valid Votes

2,634,645

Party

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (120)*

Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF)

1,569,867

59.59%

78

Movement for Democratic Change (MDC)

1,041,292

39.52%

41

Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga)

6,608

0.25%

-

Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance (ZIYA)

594

0.02%

-

Zimbabwe People's Democratic Party (ZPDP)

61

0.00%

-

Independents

16,223

0.62%

 01

*120 seats are filled through direct election; 30 seats are reserved for appointees.
 
26 November 2005 Senatorial Election*

Registered Voters

3,239,574

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   631,347 (19.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     21,052

Total Valid Votes

   610,295

Party

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (50)**

Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF)

449,860

73.71%

43

Movement for Democratic Change (MDC)

123,628

20.26%

07

Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga)

11,023

1.81%

-

Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance (ZIYA)

6,919

1.13%

-

Peace Action is Freedom for All (PAFA)

5,278

0.86%

-

African National Party (ANP)

3,585

0.59%

-

Zimbabwe African People’s Union-Federal Party (ZAPU-FP)

213

0.03%

-

Multi-Racial Open Party-Christian Democrats (MOP-CD)

100

0.02%

-

Independents

9,689

1.59%

-

*Partially boycotted by the main opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC).
**50 seats are filled through direct election; 16 seats are reserved for appointees (6 presidential appointees & 10 traditional chiefs).
 
March/June 2008 Presidential Election
First Round (29 March 2008)

Registered Voters

5,934,768

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,537,240 (42.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     39,975

Total Valid Votes

2,497,265
Second Round (27 June 2008)

Registered Voters

5,934,768

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,514,750 (42.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   131,481

Total Valid Votes

2,383,269

Candidate (Party)

First Round

Second Round

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Morgan Tsvangirai (MDC)

1,195,562

47.87%

233,000

9.78%

Robert Mugabe (ZANU-PF)

1,079,730

43.24%

2,150,269

90.22%

Simba Makoni

207,470

8.31%

-

-

Langton Towungana

14,503

0.58%

-

-