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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Chad
 
Political Profile
Political System: Restricted Democratic Practice
President: Idriss Déby Itno (MPS) [since 21 March 1990; seized power in 1990 military rebellion, elected 1996, re-elected 2001, 2006, and 2011] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 5-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off). Note: Déby added Itno to his name on 26 January 2006.
Prime MinisterEmmanuel Nadingar (MPS) [since 5 March 2010] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
National Assembly [unicameral] (155 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote through parallel systems - 25 single-member constituencies using the two-round (run-off) system and 34 multi-member constituencies using the party-list proportional representation system; members serve 4-year terms.
Political Situation since Independence
1960-1962 [De-Facto] One Party State (PPT)
1962-1975 One Party State (PPT/MNRCS)
1975-1979 Military Regime
1979-1982 Transitional Government
1982-1984 Military Regime
1984-1989 Military Regime & [De-Facto] One Party State (UNIR)
1989-1990 One Party State (UNIR)
1990-1993 Military Regime
1993-1996 Multiparty Transition
1996-        Restricted Democratic Practice
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 7, Civil Liberties - 6, Status: Not Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2016
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election: 2015
Political Parties: ACTUS - Action for Unity and Socialism, Al Nassour*, Al Wassat*, AND - National Alliance for Democracy and Development, ANDR - National Alliance for Democracy and Renewal, ARD - Action for the Republic, Democracy, and Development, ART - Action for the Renewal of Chad, ASRI - Socialist Alliance for Integral Renewal, AST - Chadian Social Action, CDF - National Democratic and Federal Convention, CNDS - National Democratic and Social Convention, CTPD - Chadian Convention for Peace and Development, FAR - Front of Action Forces for the Republic/Federation Action for the Republic, GIRT - Grouping of Rural and Independent Chadians, MDST - Movement for Democracy and Socialism in Chad, MESAN - Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa, MNRCS - National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution, MPDT - People's Movement for Democracy in Chad, MPTR - Movement of Chadian Patriots for the Republic, MPS - Patriotic Salvation Movement (authoritarian), MSA - African Socialist Movement, MSA-R - Renewed African Socialist Movement, PAP-JS - African Party for Peace and Justice, PDI - Party for Democracy and Integral Independence, PDSA - Democratic and Socialist Party for Alternation, PLD - Party for Liberty and Development, PPJE - People's Party for Justice and Equality, PPT - Chadian Progressive Party, PUR - Party for Unity and Reconstruction, RAPAD - People's Rally for Democratic Alternation, RDP - Rally for Democracy and Progress, RFDT - Rally of Democratic Forces in Chad, RNDP [Viva-RNDP] - National Rally for Democracy and Progress, RNDT-Le Réveil - National Rally for Democracy in Chad, RPR-LINGUI - Rally for the Republic-Lingui, SONOR - New Breath for the Republic, UDIT - Independent Democratic Union of Chad, UDPT - Democratic Union for Progress in Chad, UDR - Union for Democracy and the Republic, UDT - Chadian Democratic Union, UET-V - Union of Chadian Ecologists-The Greens, UFD-PR - Union of Democratic Forces-Republican Party, UN - National Union, UNDR - National Union for Democracy and Renewal, UNIR - National Union for Independence and Revolution, URD - Union for Renewal and Democracy.
Coalitions: Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad (ART) [Contested the 2011 National Assembly Election] Member parties include the Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS), Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), and the National Rally for Democracy and Progress (Viva-RNDP).
*No political party acronym is available.
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Single Party: 1969
--Multiparty: 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011
Legislative
--Single Party: 1962, 1963, 1969
--Non Partisan: 1990
--Multiparty: 1959, 1997, 2002, 2011
Referenda: 1958, 1989, 1996, 2005
 
 
28 September 1958 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Approval of the constitution meant internal autonomy within the "French Community." France agreed to grant independence to any territory that rejected the proposed constitution.
Ballot Question: Do you approve the Constitution proposed by the Government of the Republic?

Registered Voters

1,243,450

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   823,015 (66.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       4,628

Total Valid Votes

   818,387

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 804,355 98.29%
"No" Votes 14,032 1.71%
 
31 May 1959 Legislative Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

1,262,985

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   582,282 (46.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     13,340

Total Valid Votes

   568,942

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (85)
Chadian Progressive Party (PPT) 390,377 68.70% 57
Independent Democratic Union of Chad (UDIT) 41,304 7.27% 17
Chadian Social Action (AST) 25,597 4.50% 9
Grouping of Rural and Independent Chadians (GIRT) 44,438 7.82% 2
African Socialist Movement (MSA) 55,500 9.77% -
Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa (MESAN) 11,041 1.94% -
*Official results state that 568,942 valid votes were cast, but the distribution of votes received by political parties totals 568,257 (a difference of 685 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of valid votes cast.
 
Note: Chad gained independence from France on 11 August 1960 with François Tombalbaye as the Head of State. He was formally elected President by an electoral college on 22 April 1962. Running unopposed, he received 678 votes (97.1%) out of a total of 698.
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Chadian Progressive Party (PPT) 1962-1973; National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution (MNRCS) 1973-1975
4 March 1962 National Assembly Election (85 Seats)

Registered Voters

1,297,908

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,128,503 (86.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       4,289

Total Valid Votes

1,124,214 (99.62%)

PPT

1,124,214 (100.00%)

22 December 1963 National Assembly Election (75 Seats)

Registered Voters

1,421,520

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,356,211 (95.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       2,434

Total Valid Votes

1,353,777 (99.82%)

PPT

1,352,749 (99.92%)

15 June 1969 Presidential Election (François Tombalbaye re-elected unopposed)

Registered Voters

1,678,979

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,562,139 (93.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       6,026

Total Valid Votes

1,556,113 (99.61%)

François Tombalbaye

1,556,113 (100.00%)

14 December 1969 National Assembly Election (105 Seats)

Registered Voters

1,664,848

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,583,422 (95.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       2,829

Total Valid Votes

1,580,593 (99.82%)

PPT

1,580,593 (100.00%)

 
10 December 1989 Constitutional Referendum*
Main Points: Hissène Habré as president, Presidential Republic, unicameral legislature, sole legal party

Registered Voters

2,894,825

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,693,282 (93.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       2,997

Total Valid Votes

2,690,285

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 2,687,352 99.94%
"No" Votes 1,485 0.06%
*Official results state that 2,690,285 valid votes were cast, but the distribution of "yes" and "no" votes totals 2,688,837 (a difference of 1,448 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of valid votes cast.
 
Non Partisan Elections
8 July 1990 National Assembly Election* (123 Seats)

Registered Voters

2,894,825

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,622,838 (56.1%)

*Although the election was held after a single-party state had been declared, the governing National Union for Independence and Revolution (UNIR) party did not officially field any candidates. All candidates ran as independents.
 
31 March 1996 Constitutional Referendum*
Main Points: Presidential Republic, bicameral legislature, division of powers, independent judiciary

Registered Voters

3,260,782

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,990,669 (61.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     88,869

Total Valid Votes

1,901,800

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 1,201,696 63.18%
"No" Votes 700,362 36.82%
*Official results published by the Court of Appeal state that 1,901,800 valid votes were cast, but the distribution of "yes" and "no" votes totals 1,902,058 (a difference of 258 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of valid votes cast.
 
June/July 1996 Presidential Election
First Round (2 June 1996)

Registered Voters

3,565,913

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,406,962 (67.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     88,224

Total Valid Votes

2,318,738

Second Round (3 July 1996)

Registered Voters

3,871,044

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,007,174 (77.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     69,699

Total Valid Votes

2,937,475

Candidate (Party) First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
Idriss Déby (MPS) 1,016,277 43.83% 2,102,907 71.59%
Wadal Abdelkader Kamougué (URD) 287,512 12.40% 834,568 28.41%
Saleh Kebzabo (UNDR) 199,691 8.61% - -
Jean-Bawoyeu Alingué (UDR) 192,816 8.32% - -
Lol Mahamat Choua (RDP) 137,612 5.93% - -
Younous Ibédou 76,293 3.29% - -
Adoum Moussa Seif (CNDS) 67,496 2.91% - -
Abdoulaye Lamana (UN) 63,671 2.75% - -
Delwa Kassiré Coumakoye (RNDP) 53,260 2.30% - -
Ngarlejy Yorongar (FAR) 48,407 2.09% - -
Mahamat Abdoulaye (MPDT) 47,830 2.06% - -
Abbas Mahamat Ambadi 37,568 1.62% - -
Naimbaye Lossimian (ARD) 35,420 1.53% - -
Adoum Hassan Issa 28,877 1.25% - -
Elie Romba (UDPT) 26,008 1.12% - -
 
5 January & 23 February 1997 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

3,200,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (approx. 49%)

Party Number of Seats (125)
Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) 65
Union for Renewal and Democracy (URD) 29
National Union for Democracy and Renewal (UNDR) 15
Union for Democracy and the Republic (UDR) 4
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) 3
Party for Liberty and Development (PLD) 3
National Alliance for Democracy and Development (AND) 2
Action for Unity and Socialism (ACTUS) 2
National Democratic and Social Convention (CNDS) 1
Front of Action Forces for the Republic (FAR) 1
 
20 May 2001 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

4,069,099

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,497,215 (61.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     69,657

Total Valid Votes

2,427,558

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Idriss Déby (MPS) 1,533,509 63.17%
Ngarlejy Yorongar (FAR) 396,864 16.35%
Saleh Kebzabo (UNDR) 169,917 7.00%
Wadal Abdelkader Kamougué (URD) 146,125 6.02%
Ibni Oumar Mahamat Saleh (PLD) 70,248 2.89%
Delwa Kassiré Coumakoye (RNDP) 57,382 2.36%
Jean-Bawoyeu Alingué (UDR) 53,513 2.20%
 
21 April 2002 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

4,171,169

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,185,646 (52.4%)

Party Number of Seats (155)
Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) 113
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) 10
Federation Action for the Republic (FAR) 10
National Rally for Democracy and Progress (Viva-RNDP) 5
National Union for Democracy and Renewal (UNDR) 5
Union for Renewal and Democracy (URD) 3
Action for Unity and Socialism (ACTUS) 1
Action for the Renewal of Chad (ART) 1
National Democratic and Federal Convention (CDF) 1
National Democratic and Social Convention (CNDS) 1
People's Movement for Democracy in Chad (MPDT) 1
National Rally for Democracy in Chad (RNDT-Le Réveil) 1
Rally of Democratic Forces in Chad (RFDT) 1
Rally for the Republic-Lingui (RPR-LINGUI) 1
National Union (UN) 1
 
6 June 2005 Referendum [Results by Region]
Main Points: Removal of Presidential term limits; Replacing the Senate with an Economic, Social, and Cultural Council; Clause making constitutional revisions a presidential prerogative

Registered Voters

4,958,156

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,866,382 (57.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     74,810

Total Valid Votes

2,791,592

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 1,835,392 65.75%
"No" Votes 956,180 34.25%
 
3 May 2006 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

5,697,922

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,024,226 (53.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   143,237

Total Valid Votes

2,880,989

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Idriss Déby Itno (MPS) 1,863,042 64.67%
Delwa Kassiré Coumakoye (Viva-RNDP) 436,002 15.13%
Albert Pahimi Padacké (RNDT-Le Réveil) 225,368 7.82%
Mahamat Abdoulaye (MPDT) 203,637 7.07%
Brahim Koulamallah (MSA-R) 152,940 5.31%
*The election was boycotted by the main opposition parties.
 
13 February 2011 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

4,830,885

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (56.6%)

Party/[Coalition] Number of Seats (188)
Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad [ART] 125

Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS)
113
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) 8
National Rally for Democracy and Progress (Viva-RNDP) 4
National Union for Democracy and Renewal (UNDR) 9
National Rally for Democracy in Chad (RNDT-Le Réveil) 7
Union for Renewal and Democracy (URD) 7
Federation Action for the Republic (FAR) 3
Chadian Convention for Peace and Development (CTPD) 2
Democratic and Socialist Party for Alternation (PDSA) 2
Party for Unity and Reconstruction (PUR) 2
Al Nassour 1
Al Wassat 1
National Alliance for Democracy and Development (AND) 1
National Alliance for Democracy and Renewal (ANDR) 1
Action for the Renewal of Chad (ART) 1
Movement for Democracy and Socialism in Chad (MDST) 1
People's Movement for Democracy in Chad (MPDT) 1
Movement of Chadian Patriots for the Republic (MPTR) 1
African Party for Peace and Justice (PAP-JS) 1
Party for Democracy and Integral Independence (PDI) 1
Party for Liberty and Development (PLD) 1
People's Party for Justice and Equality (PPJE) 1
People's Rally for Democratic Alternation (RAPAD) 1
New Breath for the Republic (SONOR) 1
Union for Democracy and the Republic (UDR) 1
Chadian Democratic Union (UDT) 1
Union of Chadian Ecologists-The Greens (UET-V) 1
Union of Democratic Forces-Republican Party (UFD-PR) 1
Invalidated* 13
*Partial elections for the 13 invalidated seats took place on 6 May 2011. Final results for these seats are pending.
 
25 April 2011 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

4,964,807

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,765,765 (55.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,479,355

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Idriss Déby Itno (MPS) 2,072,481 83.59%
Albert Pahimi Padacké (RNDT-Le Réveil) 213,257 8.60%
Nadji Madou (ASRI) 193,617 7.81%
*The election was boycotted by the main opposition parties.