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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Djibouti
 
Political Profile
Political System: Restricted Democratic Practice
President: lsmaïl Omar Guelleh (RPP) [UMP] [since 8 May 1999; elected 1999, re-elected 2005 and 2011] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 6-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Prime Minister: Dileïta Mohamed Dileïta (RPP) [since 7 March 1999] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
National Assembly [unicameral] (65 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote in multi-member constituencies using the party-block vote system; members serve 5-year terms.
Political Situation since Independence
1977-1981 [De-Facto] One Party State (RPI/RPP)
1981-1992 One Party State (RPP)
1992-1999 Restricted Democratic Practice
1999-2005 Emerging Democracy
2005-        Restricted Democratic Practice
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 6, Civil Liberties - 5, Status: Not Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2017
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election: 2013
Political Parties: ARD - Republican Alliance for Development, FLCS - Front for the Liberation of the Somali Coast, FRUD - Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy, LPAI - African People's League for Independence, MLD - Djibouti Liberation Movement, MPL - Popular Liberation Movement, PDD - Djiboutian Party for Development, PND - National Democratic Party, PPSD - Social Democratic People's Party, PRD - Democratic Renewal Party, RPP - People's Rally for Progress (authoritarian), UDJ - Union for Democracy and Justice, UNI - National Union for Independence, UPR - Union of Reform Partisans.
Coalitions: People's Rally for Independence (RPI) [Contested the 1977 Constituent Assembly Election] Member parties include the African People's League for Independence (LPAI), Front for the Liberation of the Somali Coast (FLCS), and a breakaway faction of the National Union for Independence (UNI); People's Rally for Progress-Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (RPP-FRUD) [Contested the 1997 National Assembly and 1999 Presidential Elections]; National Democratic Party-Democratic Renewal Party (PND-PRD) [Supported Moussa Ahmed Idriss in the 1999 Presidential Election]; Union for a Presidential Majority (UMP) [Contested the 2003 National Assembly and 2005 Presidential Elections] Member parties include the People's Rally for Progress (RPP), Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD), National Democratic Party (PND), and the Social Democratic People's Party (PPSD); [Contested the 2008 National Assembly Election] Member parties include the People's Rally for Progress (RPP), Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD), National Democratic Party (PND), Social Democratic People's Party (PSD), and the Union of Reform Partisans (UPR); [Contested the 2011 Presidential Election] Member parties include the People's Rally for Progress (RPP), Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD), Social Democratic People's Party (PSD), and the Union of Reform Partisans (UPR); Union for a Democratic Alternative (UAD) [Contested the 2003 National Assembly Election] Member parties include the Republican Alliance for Development (ARD), Movement for Democratic Renewal and Development (MRDD), Djiboutian Party for Development (PDD), and the Union for Democracy and Justice (UDJ); Movement for Democratic Renewal and Development (MRDD) [Contested the 2003 National Assembly Election as part of the Union for a Democratic Alternative coalition] An Alliance led by the Democratic Renewal Party (PRD).
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty: 1981, 1999, 2005, 2011
--Single Party: 1987
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1973, 1977, 1992, 1997, 2003, 2008
--Single Party: 1982, 1987
Plebiscite/Referendums: 1967, 1977, 1992
Regional & Communal: 2006
 
 
19 March 1967 Plebiscite* [Results by District]
Main Points: Approval of continued status as a Territory within the French Republic

Registered Voters

39,312

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

37,332 (95.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     111

Total Valid Votes

37,221

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 22,555 60.60%
"No" Votes 14,666 39.40%
*The colonial authorities held the plebiscite (avoiding the term referendum) as no region could leave France without prior permission from Parliament.
 
18 November 1973 Chamber of Deputies Election

Registered Voters

47,380

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

35,841 (75.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     443

Total Valid Votes

35,398

Political Grouping* Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (40)
Majority (Pro-Government) 26,852 75.86% 40
Moderate Opposition 5,332 15.06% -
Other Opposition 3,214 9.08% -
*Majority (Pro-Government): Supporters of the territorial government led by Ali Aref Bourhan (composed mainly of ethnic Afars). Moderate Opposition: Supporters of opposition leader Hassan Gouled Aptidon (composed mainly of the Issa and other ethnic Somalis).
 
8 May 1977 Independence Referendum
Main Points: Independence from France

Registered Voters

105,962

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  81,847 (77.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       784

Total Valid Votes

  81,063

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 80,864 99.75%
"No" Votes 199 0.25%
 
8 May 1977 Constituent Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

105,962

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  81,770 (77.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    6,149

Total Valid Votes

  75,621

Coalition Number of Votes % of Votes
People's Rally for Independence (RPI) 75,621 100.00%
*The election was boycotted by the National Union for Independence (UNI), Popular Liberation Movement (MPL), and the Djibouti Liberation Movement (MLD).
 
12 June 1981 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Candidate (Party) % of Votes
Hassan Gouled Aptidon (RPP) 100.00%
*According to the official results published by the Constitutional Committee, Hassan Gouled Aptidon received 84.7% of the total votes cast (and as the sole candidate, 100.00% of the valid votes cast) in the election.
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: People's Rally for Progress (RPP)
21 May 1982 Chamber of Deputies Election (65 Seats)

Registered Voters

85,995

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

79,380 (92.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  1,349

Total Valid Votes

78,031 (98.30%)

RPP

78,031 (100.00%)

24 April 1987 Presidential Election (Hassan Gouled Aptidon re-elected unopposed)

Registered Voters

100,881

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  91,300 (90.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       625

Total Valid Votes

  90,675 (99.32%)

Hassan Gouled Aptidon

  90,675 (100.00%)

24 April 1987 Chamber of Deputies Election (65 Seats)

Registered Voters

100,881

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  89,475 (88.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,282

Total Valid Votes

  88,193 (98.57%)

RPP

  88,193 (100.00%)

 
4 September 1992 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Multiparty System of Government, Maximum of four political parties.
Question 1
Ballot Question: Do you approve the new [multi-party] constitution?

Registered Voters

139,431

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

104,804 (75.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,504

Total Valid Votes

103,300

Question 2
Ballot Question: Do you approve the limitation of political parties to four parties?

Registered Voters

139,431

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

104,804 (75.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,502*

Total Valid Votes

103,302

Results Question 1 Question 2
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 101,287 98.05% 101,125 97.89%
"No" Votes 2,013 1.95% 2,177 2.11%
*The number of invalid votes cast for Question 2 was erroneously listed as 1,504 in the official results.
 
18 December 1992 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

151,066

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  73,187 (48.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,360

Total Valid Votes

  71,827

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (65)
People's Rally for Progress (RPP) 53,578 74.59% 65
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD) 18,249 25.41% -
*The election was boycotted by the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD).
 
7 May 1993 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

148,742

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  76,092 (51.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,750

Total Valid Votes

  74,342

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Hassan Gouled Aptidon (RPP) 45,162 60.75%
Mohamed Djama Elabé (PRD) 16,386 22.04%
Aden Robleh Awaleh (PND) 9,143 12.30%
Mohamed Moussa Ali 2,185 2.94%
Ahmed Ibrahim Abdi 1,466 1.97%
*There are slightly conflicting figures regarding this election, but the results that appear in the table above are the most reliable. A side-by-side comparison of the differing results can be found here.
 
19 December 1997 National Assembly Election [Results by District]

Registered Voters

166,276

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  94,303 (56.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    2,556

Total Valid Votes

  91,747

Party/[Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (65)
People's Rally for Progress-Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy [RPP-FRUD] 72,073 78.56% 65

People's Rally for Progress (RPP)


54
Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) 11
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD) 17,607 19.19% -
National Democratic Party (PND) 2,067 2.25% -
 
9 April 1999 Presidential Election [Results by District]

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

105,025 (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,200

Total Valid Votes

103,825

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
lsmaïl Omar Guelleh (RPP) [RPP-FRUD] 76,853 74.02%
Moussa Ahmed Idriss* [PND-PRD] 26,972 25.98%
*Moussa Ahmed Idriss ran as an independent candidate supported by the National Democratic Party-Democratic Renewal Party (PND-PRD) coalition.
 
10 January 2003 National Assembly Election [Results by District]

Registered Voters

178,799

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  85,540 (47.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,548

Total Valid Votes

  83,992

Coalition Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (65)
Union for a Presidential Majority [UMP] 52,411 62.40% 65
Union for a Democratic Alternative [UAD] 31,581 37.60% -
 
8 April 2005 Presidential Election* [Results by District]

Registered Voters

208,098

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

149,125 (71.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    4,692

Total Valid Votes

144,433

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
lsmaïl Omar Guelleh (RPP) [UMP] 144,433 100.00%
*The election was boycotted by the opposition.
**lsmaïl Omar Guelleh received 100.00% of the valid votes cast and 96.85% of the total votes cast in the election.
 
8 February 2008 National Assembly Election*/**

Registered Voters

151,490

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

109,999 (72.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    6,536

Total Valid Votes

103,463

Coalition Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (65)
Union for a Presidential Majority [UMP] 103,463 100.00% 65
*The opposition Union for a Democratic Alternative (UAD) coalition boycotted the election.
**The Union for a Presidential Majority (UMP) coalition received 100.00% of the valid votes cast and 96.04% of the total votes cast in the election.
 
8 April 2011 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

152,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

111,547

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
lsmaïl Omar Guelleh (RPP) [UMP] 89,942 80.63%
Mohamed Warsama Ragueh 21,605 19.37%
*The election was boycotted by the opposition.