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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Gabon
 
Political Profile
Political System: Restricted Democratic Practice
President: Ali Bongo Ondimba (PDG) [since 16 October 2009; elected 2011] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 7-year term. Electoral System: First Past The Post.
Prime Minister: Paul Biyoghé Mba (PDG) [since 17 July 2009] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
Parliament [bicameral]
--Senate (102 Seats) Members are indirectly elected by municipal councils and departmental assemblies; members serve 6-year terms.
--National Assembly (120 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote in multi-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post (simple majority) system; members serve 5-year terms.
Political Situation since Independence
1960-1968 Restricted Democratic Practice
1968-1990 One Party State (PDG)
1990         Multiparty Transition
1990-        Restricted Democratic Practice
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 6, Civil Liberties - 5, Status: Not Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2012
Next Scheduled Senate Election: 2015
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election: 2016
Political Parties: ADERE - Democratic and Republic Alliance, APSG - Alliance for Socialism in Gabon, BDG - Gabonese Democratic Bloc, CDJ - Congress for Democracy and Justice, CLR - Circle of Liberal Reformers, CONAB - National Confederation of Woodcutters Associations, CRP - Circle for Renewal and Progress, DID - Defense of Gabonese Interests, EDIG - Entente for the Defense of Gabonese Interests, FAR - African Forum for Reconstruction, GM - Mebiame Group, MAD - African Development Movement, MESP - Socialist Emancipation Movement of the People, MORENA - National Recovery Movement, MORENA-Bûcherons - National Recovery Movement-Woodcutters, MORENA-Original - National Recovery Movement, MORENA-Unionist - National Recovery Movement-Unionist, PCO - Omega Circle Party, PDG - Gabonese Democratic Party (authoritarian), PGCI - Gabonese Independent Center Party, PGP - Gabonese Progress Party, PGP-Ndaot - Gabonese Progress Party-Ndaot faction (PGP-Ndaot), PSD - Social Democratic Party, PSG - Gabonese Socialist Party, PUP - People's Unity Party, RDD - Rally of Democrats, RDP - Rally for Democracy and Progress, RDR - Rally of Republican Democrats, RNB - National Rally of Woodcutters (center-left), RNB-Kombila - National Rally of Woodcutters-Kombila, RNB-RPG - National Rally of Woodcutters-Rally for Gabon, RPG - Rally for Gabon, UDSG - Gabonese Democratic and Social Union, UGDD - Gabonese Union for Democracy and Development, UPG - Union of the Gabonese People, USG - Gabonese Socialist Union.
Coalitions: National Union [Contested the 1961 National Assembly Election] Included members from both the Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) and Gabonese Democratic and Social Union (UDSG), who ran together on a single party-list; New Alliance [Supported Omar Bongo in the 1993 Presidential Election] Member parties include the Alliance for Socialism in Gabon (APSG), Circle of Liberal Reformers (CLR), People's Unity Party (PUP), and the Gabonese Socialist Union (USG); High Council of the Resistance (HCR) [Contested the 1998 Presidential Election] Member parties include the Union of the Gabonese People (UPG), African Forum for Reconstruction (FAR), Socialist Emancipation Movement of the People (MESP), National Recovery Movement (MORENA-Original), and the Mebiame Group (GM).
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty: 1961, 1967, 1993, 1998, 2005, 2009
--Single Party: 1973, 1979, 1986
Legislative
--Senate: 1997, 2003, 2009
--National Assembly
----Multiparty: 1957, 1961, 1964, 1967, 1990, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011
----Single Party: 1969, 1973, 1980, 1985
Referendum: 1958, 1995
 
 
31 March 1957 Territorial Assembly Election

Registered Voters

242,058

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

119,916 (49.5%)

Party Number of Seats (40)
Gabonese Democratic and Social Union (UDSG) 18
Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) & Allies 16

Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG)
8
Entente for the Defense of Gabonese Interests (EDIG) 8
Defense of Gabonese Interests (DIG) 3
Independents 3
 
28 September 1958 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Approval of the constitution meant internal autonomy within the "French Community." France agreed to grant independence to any territory that rejected the proposed constitution.
Ballot Question: Do you approve the Constitution proposed by the Government of the Republic?

Registered Voters

265,161

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

208,600 (78.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    3,022

Total Valid Votes

205,578

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 190,334 92.58%
"No" Votes 15,244 7.42%
 
Note: The 1961 Constitution provided for direct presidential elections, albeit via the single-ticket unitary list presented for the National Assembly. From 1961 through 1973, presidential and national assembly elections were held together with the sole presidential candidate receiving the same number of votes cast for the ruling party (Gabonese Democratic Bloc/Gabonese Democratic Party) as head of the party-list. Following a 1979 revision of the Constitution, presidential and national assembly elections were conducted separately.
 
12 February 1961 Presidential & National Assembly Election*/**

Registered Voters

320,756

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

316,679 (99.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,344

Total Valid Votes

315,335

Coalition Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (67)
National Union** 315,335 100.00% 67
*Léon M'ba of the Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG), as head of the party-list, was elected President by the same margin. He was unopposed.
**The Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) and the Gabonese Democratic and Social Union (UDSG) fielded a single-list of candidates for the election under the name National Union. The National Union list received 100.00% of the valid votes cast and 99.58% of the total votes cast in the election.
 
12 April 1964 National Assembly Election*/**

Registered Voters

309,049

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

262,772 (85.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    5,679

Total Valid Votes

257,093

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (47)
Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) & Allies 142,389 55.38% 31

Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) (125,367) (48.76%)
Others (17,022) (6.62%)
Opposition 114,704 44.62% 16

Gabonese Democratic and Social Union (UDSG) & Defense of Democratic Institutions (DID) (66,362) (25.81%)
Others (48,342) (18.80%)
*The Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) received 55.38% of the valid votes cast in the election. President Léon M'ba, as head of the BDG party-list, was re-elected unopposed by the same margin.
**According to the official results, the opposition received 44.57% of the vote (UDSG & DID: 25.42%, Other opposition: 19.15%), while the Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) and its allies received 55.38% of the vote. Percentage figures for the opposition in the table have been adjusted based on the number of valid votes cast to correct the small discrepancy.
 
19 March 1967 Presidential & National Assembly Election*/**

Registered Voters

348,942

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

346,900 (99.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       313

Total Valid Votes

346,587

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (47)
Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) 346,587 100.00% 47
*The Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) received 100.00% of the valid votes cast and 99.91% of the total votes cast in the election. President Léon M'ba, as head of the BDG party-list, was re-elected unopposed by the same margin.
**Léon M'ba died in office on 28 November 1967. His Vice President, Albert-Bernard (later Omar) Bongo became President and completed his term.
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG)

25 February 1973 Presidential & National Assembly Election* (Albert-Bernard Bongo** elected unopposed; 70 Seats)

Registered Voters

529,828

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

517,932 (97.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    2,091

Total Valid Votes

515,841 (99.60%)

PDG

515,841 (100.00%)

*The Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) received 100.00% of the valid votes cast and 99.60% of the total votes cast in the election. President Albert-Bernard Bongo, as head of the PDG party-list, was re-elected unopposed by the same margin. **Changed his first name to Omar after converting to Islam in September 1979.

30 December 1979 Presidential Election (Omar Bongo re-elected unopposed)

Registered Voters

726,079

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

726,043 (99.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       236

Total Valid Votes

725,807 (99.97%)

Omar Bongo

725,807 (100.00%)

February 1980 National Assembly Election*/** (89 Seats)

Registered Voters

651,589

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

707,065 (108.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    1,061

Total Valid Votes

706,004 (99.85%)

PDG

706,004 (100.00%)

*Registration a posteriori was possible on election day, which accounts for the inflated voter turnout figure.
**There is conflict among different sources regarding the election date. The most common dates given are 10 February, 24 February, or 25 February.
3 March 1985 National Assembly Election (120 Seats)

Registered Voters

807,241

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

771,651 (95.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    3,977

Total Valid Votes

767,674 (99.48%)

PDG

767,674 (100.00%)

9 November 1986 Presidential Election (Omar Bongo re-elected unopposed)

Registered Voters

904,467

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

904,039 (99.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       300

Total Valid Votes

903,739 (99.97%)

Omar Bongo

903,739 (100.00%)

 
16 September, 21 & 28 October, & 4 November 1990 National Assembly Election*/**

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (120)
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) 63
National Recovery Movement-Woodcutters (MORENA-Bûcherons) 20
Gabonese Progress Party (PGP) 18
National Recovery Movement (MORENA-Original) 7
Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG) 6
Gabonese Socialist Union (USG) 4
Circle for Renewal and Progress (CRP) 1
Union for Democracy and Development in Mayumba (UDD) 1
*The elections were initially scheduled for 16 September and 23 September 1990. Due to widespread irregularities and violence during the 16 September balloting, the results in 32 constituencies were invalidated and the second round of voting was suspended. Further rounds of voting took place on 21 October and 28 October 1990 and were relatively incident-free, although disruptions in two constituencies led to new elections on 4 November 1990 for three seats. The figures in the table above reflect the composition after the 4 November 1990 vote.
**In December 1990, the Supreme Court invalidated the credentials of five National Assembly members. Partial elections to fill those seats were held in March 1991. The Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) gained three seats (for a total of 66) and the Gabonese Progress Party gained one seat (for a total of 19). The National Recovery Movement-Woodcutters (MORENA-Bûcherons) lost three seats (for a total of 17) and the Gabonese Socialist Union (USG) lost one seat (for a total of 3).
 
5 December 1993 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

484,319

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

426,594 (88.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    8,875

Total Valid Votes

417,719

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Omar Bongo (PDG) [New Alliance] 213,793 51.18%
Paul Mba Abessole (RNB)* 110,747 26.51%
Pierre-Louis Agondjo Okawé (PGP) 19,961 4.78%
Pierre-Claver Maganga-Moussavou (PSD) 15,220 3.64%
Jules-Aristide Bourdès-Ogouliguendé 14,113 3.38%
Alexandre Sambat 10,819 2.59%
Didjob Divungi Di Ndinge (ADERE) 9,203 2.20%
Léon Mbou Yembi (FAR) 7,625 1.83%
Jean-Pierre Lemboumba Lépandou (PGCI) 5,768 1.38%
Marc Saturnin Nan Nguéma (PLD) 3,579 0.86%
Simon Oyono Aba'a (MORENA-Original) 3,466 0.83%
Adrien Nguema Ondo (MORENA-Unionist) 1,842 0.44%
Léon Mébiame 1,583 0.38%
*Paul Mba Abessole received 110,747 votes, which corresponds to 26.51 percent of the valid votes cast, as is listed in the official results. The widely circulated figure of 70,747 creates a discrepancy of 40,000 votes that is contradictory to the official results.
 
23 July 1995 Referendum
Main Points: Implementation of the "Paris Accords", constitutional reforms agreed to in 1994 negotiations between the government and political opposition.

Registered Voters

351,224

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

223,815 (63.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    4,647

Total Valid Votes

219,168

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 211,039 96.29%
"No" Votes 8,129 3.71%
 
15 & 29 December 1996 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (120)
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) 85
Gabonese Progress Party (PGP) 10
National Rally of Woodcutters (RNB) 7
Circle of Liberal Reformers (CLR) 2
Gabonese Socialist Union (USG) 2
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) 1
Democratic and Republic Alliance (ADERE) 1
Congress for Democracy and Justice (CDJ) 1
African Forum for Reconstruction (FAR) 1
Union of the Gabonese People (UPG) 1
Circle for Renewal and Progress (CRP) 1
National Recovery Movement (MORENA-Original) 1
Independents 7
 
6 December 1998 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

316,900

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Omar Bongo (PDG) 211,955 66.88%
Pierre Mamboundou (UPG) [HCR] 52,278 16.50%
Paul Mba Abessole (RNB) 41,701 13.16%
Pierre André Kombila (RNB) 4,847 1.53%
Pierre-Claver Maganga-Moussavou (PSD) 3,152 0.99%
Martin Edzodzomo-Ela 1,548 0.49%
Alain Engouang Nze (CONAB) 892 0.28%
Joseph Adrien Mabicka Maguena 527 0.17%
 
9 & 23 December 2001 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

596,431

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (120)
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) 86
National Rally of Woodcutters-Rally for Gabon (RNB-RPG) 8
Democratic and Republican Alliance (ADERE) 3
Gabonese Progress Party (PGP) 3
Circle of Liberal Reformers (CLR) 2
Congress for Democracy and Justice (CDJ) 1
African Development Movement (MAD) 1
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 1
National Rally of Woodcutters-Kombila (RNB-Kombila) 1
People's Unity Party (PUP) 1
Independents 12
Vacant 1
*The election was postponed in one department following an outbreak of ebola fever. The poll was finally conducted on 26 May 2002, although the results are not available.
 
27 November 2005 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

554,967

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

353,126 (63.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    4,782

Total Valid Votes

348,344

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Omar Bongo Ondimba (PDG) 275,819 79.18%
Pierre Mamboundou (UPG) 47,410 13.61%
Zacharie Myboto** 22,921 6.58%
Augustin Moussavou King (PSG) 1,149 0.33%
Christian Maronga (RDD) 1,045 0.30%
*Members of the Gabonese security forces voted on 25 November 2005.
**Zacharie Myboto ran as independent owing to the fact that his political party, the Gabonese Union for Democracy and Development (UGDD) [formed in early 2005] was not legalized prior to the election.
 
17 December 2006 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

640,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available

Party Number of Seats (120)
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) & Allies 99

Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG)
82
Rally for Gabon (RPG) 8
Democratic and Republic Alliance (ADERE) 3
Circle of Liberal Reformers (CLR) 2
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 2
African Development Movement (MAD) 1
Rally of Republican Democrats (RDR) 1
Union of the Gabonese People (UPG) 8
Gabonese Union for Democracy and Development (UGDD) 4
Gabonese Progress Party-Ndaot faction (PGP-Ndaot) 2
African Forum for Reconstruction (FAR) 1
Congress for Democracy and Justice (CDJ) 1
National Rally of Woodcutters-Kombila (RNB-Kombila) 1
Independents 4
*Due to logistical problems, polling in seven electoral districts was delayed until 24 December 2006.
 
30 August 2009 Presidential Election*/**

Registered Voters

807,402

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

357,621 (44.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  17,443

Total Valid Votes

340,178

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Ali Bongo Ondimba (PDG) 141,952 41.73%
André Mba Obame 88,028 25.88%
Pierre Mamboundou (UPG) 85,797 25.22%
Zacharie Myboto (UGDD) 13,418 3.94%
Casimir Oyé-Mba*** 3,118 0.92%
Pierre-Claver Maganga-Moussavou (PSD) 2,576 0.76%
Bruno Ben Moubamba 963 0.28%
Georges Bruno Ngoussi 915 0.27%
Jules-Aristide Bourdes-Ogouliguende (CDJ) 695 0.20%
Albert Ondo Ossa 674 0.20%
Yvette Ngwevilo Rekangalt 367 0.11%
Ernest Tomo 308 0.09%
Victoire Lasseni Duboze 304 0.09%
Bienvenu Mauro Nguema (MORENA-Unionist) 293 0.09%
Luc Bengono Nsi (MORENA) 250 0.07%
Marcel Robert Tchoreret (PCO) 248 0.07%
Jean-Guy Kombeny 152 0.04%
Bernard Oyama 106 0.03%
*Official results published by the Constitutional Court state that 340,178 valid votes were cast, but the distribution of votes among candidates totals 340,164 (a difference of 14 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of valid votes cast.
**A Constitutional Court mandated recount of the votes began on 30 September and were announced on 13 October 2009. The vote percentages for the top three candidates were as follows: Ali Bongo Ondimba (41.79%), Pierre Mamboundou (25.64%), and André Mba Obame (25.33%). Recount figures are not available for the other candidates.
***Casimir Oyé-Mba withdrew from the election on election day, but his name remained on the ballot and he garnered votes.
 
17 December 2011 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

745,645 

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

255,570 (34.3%)

Party Number of Seats (120)
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) & Allies 112

Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG)
108
Rally for Gabon (RPG) 3
Circle of Liberal Reformers (CLR) 1
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 1
Union for the New Republic (UPNR) 1
Invalidated 4
*The election was boycotted by most of the opposition.