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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Zambia
 
Political Profile
Political System: Democracy
President: Michael Sata (PF) [since 23 September 2011; elected 2011] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 5-year term. Electoral System: First Past The Post.
National Assembly [unicameral] (158 Seats) 150 members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post system, 8 members are appointed by the President; Members serve 5-year terms.
Electoral Authority: Election Commission
Political Situation since Independence
1964-1972 Emerging Democracy
1972-1990 One Party State (UNIP)
1990-1991 Multiparty Transition
1991-1996 Democracy
1996-2006 Emerging Democracy
2006-        Democracy
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 3, Civil Liberties - 4, Status: Partly Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2016
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election: 2016
Political Parties: ADD - Alliance for Development and Democracy, ANC - African National Congress, APC - All People's Congress, AZ - Agenda for Zambia, CDP - Citizens Democratic Party, FDD - Forum for Democracy and Development, FEDEPA - Federal Democratic Party, HP - Heritage Party, MDP - Movement for Democratic Process, MMD - Movement for Multiparty Democracy (centrist, social-democratic), NAREP - National Restoration Party, NCC - National Citizens' Coalition, NDF - National Democratic Focus, NGP - New Generation Party, NLD - National Leadership for Development, NMP - National Movement for Progress, NP - National Party, NPP - National Progressive Party, NRP - National Revolution Party, PF - Patriotic Front, SDP - Social Democratic Party, UFP - United Federal Party, ULP - United Liberal Party, UNIP - United National Independence Party (far-left), UPDD - Unified Party for Democracy and Development, UPND - United Party for National Development (liberal), ZCP - Zambian Conservative Party, ZDC - Zambian Democratic Congress, ZDDM - Zambia Direct Democracy Movement, ZED - Zambians for Empowerment and Democracy, ZRP - Zambian Republican Party.
Coalitions: United Democratic Alliance (UDA) [Contested the 2006 Presidential and National Assembly Elections] Member parties include the United Party for National Development (UPND), United National Independence Party (UNIP), and the Forum for Democracy and Development (FDD).
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty: 1968, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2008, 2011
--Single Party: 1973, 1978, 1983, 1988
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1964, 1968, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011
--Single Party: 1973, 1978, 1983, 1988
Referendum: 1969
 
 
20-21 January 1964 Legislative Council Election*/**

_

Main Roll              Reserved Roll

Registered Voters

876,212                  23,981

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

830,415 (94.8%)     17,758 (74.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    4,178                       224

Total Valid Votes

826,237                  17,534

Party Main Roll Reserved Roll Number of Seats (75)
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (65) Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (10)
United National Independence Party (UNIP) 570,612 69.06% 55 6,177 35.23% - 55
African National Congress (ANC) 251,963 30.50% 10 165 0.94% - 10
National Progressive Party (NPP) - - - 11,157 63.63% 10 10
Independents 3,662 0.44% - 35 0.20% - -
*There were two rolls in the election, the "Main Roll" for Africans and the "Reserved Roll" for Europeans [Whites]. Members of other ethnicities were given the option of choosing the roll on which they would be registered.
**Following the election, Kenneth Kaunda of the United National Independence Party (UNIP) was named Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia. He remained in that position until independence on 24 October 1964, when he became the first President of Zambia.
 
19 December 1968 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

1,587,966

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,383,477 (87.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     63,490

Total Valid Votes

1,319,987

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Kenneth Kaunda (UNIP) 1,079,970 81.82%
Harry Nkumbula (ANC) 240,017 18.18%
Kenneth Kaunda of the United National Independence Party (UNIP) was re-elected unopposed. No figures are available.
 
19 December 1968 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

1,166,637

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   962,150 (82.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     63,490

Total Valid Votes

   898,660

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (105)**
United National Independence Party (UNIP) 657,764 73.19% 81
African National Congress (ANC) 228,277 25.40% 23
Independents 12,619 1.40% 1
*Figures in the table above correspond to the 75 constituencies in which elections were held. United National Independence Party (UNIP) candidates were elected unopposed in the 30 remaining constituencies.
**105 members were directly elected; an additional 5 members were appointed by the President.
 
Main Points: Granting more power to the legislature

Registered Voters

1,587,966

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,103,352 (69.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     39,667

Total Valid Votes

1,063,685

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 904,337 85.02%
"No" Votes 159,348 14.98%
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: United National Independence Party (UNIP)
5 December 1973 Presidential Election (Kenneth Kaunda re-elected unopposed) [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

1,746,107

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   688,686 (39.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     34,326

Total Valid Votes

   654,360

"Yes" Votes

   581,245 (88.83%)

"No" Votes

     73,115 (11.17%)

5 December 1973 National Assembly Election (136 Seats; 125 directly-elected, 10 appointed by the President, and the Speaker, chosen by the members of the Assembly themselves from among persons who were qualified to be elected as members of the Assembly but were not members of it.)

Registered Voters

1,746,107

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   583,607 (33.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     56,355

Total Valid Votes

   527,252 (90.34%)

UNIP

   527,252 (100.00%)

12 December 1978 Presidential Election (Kenneth Kaunda re-elected unopposed) [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

1,971,881

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,315,609 (66.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     44,763

Total Valid Votes

1,270,846

"Yes" Votes

1,026,127 (80.74%)

"No" Votes

   244,719 (19.26%)

12 December 1978 National Assembly Election* (136 Seats; 125 directly-elected, 10 appointed by the President, and the Speaker, chosen by the members of the Assembly themselves from among persons who were qualified to be elected as members of the Assembly but were not members of it.)

Registered Voters

1,884,399

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

UNIP

  100.00%

*The registered voter figure excludes six constituencies, with a total of 87,482 registerered voters, where no elections took place and the candidates were returned unopposed.
27 October 1983 Presidential Election (Kenneth Kaunda re-elected unopposed) [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

2,377,610

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,558,063 (65.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     34,679

Total Valid Votes

1,523,384

"Yes" Votes

1,453,029 (95.38%)

"No" Votes

     70,355   (4.62%)

27 October 1983 National Assembly Election (136 Seats; 125 directly-elected, 10 appointed by the President, and the Speaker, chosen by the members of the Assembly themselves from among persons who were qualified to be elected as members of the Assembly but were not members of it.) 

Registered Voters

2,377,610

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

UNIP

  100.00%

26 October 1988 Presidential Election* (Kenneth Kaunda re-elected unopposed)

Registered Voters

2,600,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,529,000 (58.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     48,000

Total Valid Votes

1,481,000

"Yes" Votes

1,414,000 (95.48%)

"No" Votes

     67,000   (4.52%)

*All figures are approximations.
26 October 1988 National Assembly Election (136 Seats; 125 directly-elected, 10 appointed by the President, and the Speaker, chosen by the members of the Assembly themselves from among persons who were qualified to be elected as members of the Assembly but were not members of it.) 

Registered Voters

2,600,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

UNIP

  100.00%

 
31 October 1991 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

2,931,909

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (approx. 45%)

Candidate (Party)

% of Votes

Frederick Chiluba (MMD)

75.8%

Kenneth Kaunda (UNIP)

24.2%

 
31 October 1991 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (150)*

Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD)

125

United National Independence Party (UNIP)

25

*150 members were directly elected; an additional 8 members were appointed by the President.
 
18 November 1996 Presidential Election* [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

2,267,382

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,325,053 (58.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     66,248

Total Valid Votes

1,285,805

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Frederick Chiluba (MMD) 913,770 72.59%
Dean Mung'omba (ZDC) 160,439 12.74%
Humphrey Mulemba (NP) 83,875 6.66%
Akashambatwa Mbikusita Lewanika (AZ) 59,250 4.70%
Chama Chakomboka (MDP) 41,471 3.29%
*The main opposition United National Independence Party (UNIP) boycotted the election.
 
18 November 1996 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

2,267,382

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Votes

% of Vote

Number of Seats (150)**

Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD)

737,062

60.1%

131

National Party (NP)

88,444

7.2%

5

Agenda for Zambia (AZ)

18,982

1.5%

2

Zambian Democratic Congress (ZDC)

172,446

14.1%

2

Independents

126,032

10.3%

10

Others

83,693

6.8%

-

*The main opposition United National Independence Party (UNIP) boycotted the election.
**150 members were directly elected; an additional 8 members were appointed by the President.
 
27 December 2001 Presidential Election [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

2,604,761

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,766,356 (67.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     28,408

Total Valid Votes

1,737,948

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Levy Mwanawasa (MMD) 506,694 29.15%
Anderson Mazoka (UPND) 472,697 27.20%
Christon Tembo (FDD) 228,861 13.17%
Tilyenji Kaunda (UNIP) 175,898 10.12%
Godfrey Miyanda (HP) 140,678 8.09%
Benjamin Mwila (ZRP) 85,472 4.92%
Michael Sata (PF) 59,172 3.40%
Nevers Mumba (NCC) 38,860 2.24%
Gwendoline Konie (SDP) 10,253 0.59%
Inonge Mbikusita-Lewanika (AZ) 9,882 0.57%
Yobert Shamapande (NLD) 9,481 0.55%
 
27 December 2001 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

2,604,761

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,785,485 (68.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     34,133

Total Valid Votes

1,751,352

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (150)*
Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) 490,680 28.02% 69
United Party for National Development (UPND) 416,236 23.77% 49
Forum for Democracy and Development (FDD) 272,817 15.58% 12
United National Independence Party (UNIP) 185,535 10.59% 13
Heritage Party (HP) 132,311 7.55% 4
Zambian Republican Party (ZRP) 97,010 5.54% 1
Patriotic Front (PF) 49,362 2.82% 1
National Citizens' Coalition (NCC) 35,632 2.03% -
Others 12,434 0.71% -
Independents 59,335 3.39% 1
*150 members were directly elected; an additional 8 members were appointed by the President.
 
28 September 2006 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

3,941,229

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,789,114 (70.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     48,936

Total Valid Votes

2,740,178

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Levy Mwanawasa (MMD) 1,177,846 42.98%
Michael Sata (PF) 804,748 29.37%
Hakainde Hichilema (UPND) [UDA] 693,772 25.32%
Godfrey Miyanda (HP) 42,891 1.57%
Winright Ngondo (APC) 20,921 0.76%
 
28 September 2006 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

3,941,229

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/[Coalition]

Number of Seats (150)*

Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD)

72

Patriotic Front (PF)

44

United Democratic Alliance [UDA]

27

United Liberal Party (ULP)

2

National Democratic Focus (NDF)

1

Independents

2

Vacant**

2

*150 members were directly elected; an additional 8 members are appointed by the President.
**By-elections were held on 26 October 2006 for the two vacant seats. The Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) won both seats, raising its total to 74. 
 
30 October 2008 Presidential Election [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

3,944,135

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,791,806 (45.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     23,596

Total Valid Votes

1,768,210

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Rupiah Banda (MMD) 718,359 40.63%
Michael Sata (PF) 683,150 38.64%
Hakainde Hichilema (UPND) 353,018 19.96%
Godfrey Miyanda (HP) 13,683 0.77%
 
20 September 2011 Presidential Election [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

5,167,154

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,789,340 (54.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     56,678

Total Valid Votes

2,732,662

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Michael Sata (PF) 1,170,966 42.85%
Rupiah Banda (MMD) 987,866 36.15%
Hakainde Hichilema (UPND) 506,763 18.54%
Charles Milupi (ADD) 26,270 0.96%
Elias Chipimo (NAREP) 10,672 0.39%
Tilyenji Kaunda (UNIP) 9,950 0.36%
Edith Nawakwi (FDD) 6,833 0.25%
Ng'andu Magande (NMP) 6,344 0.23%
Godfrey Miyanda (HP) 4,730 0.17%
Fredrick Mutesa (ZED) 2,268 0.08%
 
20 September 2011 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

5,101,312

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,689,540

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (150)**
Patriotic Front (PF) 1,028,793 38.25% 60
Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) 902,619 33.56% 55
United Party for National Development (UPND) 456,873 16.99% 28
Alliance for Development and Democracy (ADD) 31,638 1.18% 1
Forum for Democracy and Development (FDD) 20,243 0.75% 1
United National Independence Party (UNIP) 18,444 0.69% -
National Movement for Progress (NMP) 11,828 0.44% -
National Restoration Party (NAREP) 4,688 0.17% -
Zambians for Empowerment and Development (ZED) 3,059 0.11% -
New Generation Party (NGP) 657 0.02% -
National Revolution Party (NRP) 505 0.02% -
Heritage Party (HP) 485 0.02% -
Unified Party for Democracy and Development (UPDD) 442 0.02% -
National Party (NP) 193 0.01% -
Zambia Direct Democracy Movement (ZDDM) 177 0.01% -
Zambian Conservative Party (ZCP) 168 0.01% -
All People's Congress Party (APC) 139 0.01% -
Citizens Democratic Party (CDP) 137 0.01% -
United Liberal Party (ULP) 131 0.00% -
Federal Democratic Party (FEDEPA) 27 0.00% -
Independents 208,294 7.74% 3
Vacant - - 2
*The registered voter figure excludes the two constituencies where elections were deferred: Magoye Constituency (25,438 registered voters) and Nakonde Constituency (40,404 registered voters).
**150 members are directly elected; an additional 8 members are appointed by the President.