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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Togo
 
Political Profile
Political System: Restricted Democratic Practice
President: Faure Gnassingbé (RPT) [since 4 May 2005; elected 2005, re-elected 2010] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 5-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Prime Minister: Gilbert Houngbo [since 8 September 2008] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
National Assembly [unicameral] (81 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the party-list proportional representation system; members serve 5-year terms.
Political Situation since Independence
1960-1961 Democracy
1961-1962 Restricted Democratic Practice
1962-1963 [De-Facto] One Party State (CUT)
1963         Transitional Government
1963-1967 Emerging Democracy
1967-1969 Military Regime
1969-1979 Military Regime & One Party State (RPT)
1979-1991 One Party State (RPT)
1991-1993 Multiparty Transition
1993-        Restricted Democratic Practice
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 5, Civil Liberties - 4, Status: Partly Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2015
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election: 2012
Political Parties: ADDI - Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development, ALLIANCE - Democratic Alliance for the Fatherland, ATD - Togolese Alliance for Democracy, CAR - Action Committee for Renewal (centrist), CDPA - Democratic Convention of African Peoples, CDPA-BT - Democratic Convention of African Peoples-Togolese Branch, CFN - Coordination of New Forces (centrist), CPP - Pan-African Patriotic Convergence, CUT - Committee of Togolese Unity, JUVENTO - Togolese Youth Movement [Justice, Union, Vigilance, Education, Nationalism, Tenacity, Optimism], MOCEP - Believers' Movement for Equality and Peace, MPT - Togolese People’s Movement, OBUTS - Organization for the Construction of a United Togo, PDP - Pan-African Democratic Party, PDR - Party for Democracy and Renewal, PRR - Party for Renewal and Redemption, PTP - Togolese Progress Party, PUT - Party of Togolese Unity, PSR - Socialist Pact for Renewal, RPT - Rally of the Togolese People (authoritarian), RSDD - Rally for the Support of Democracy and Development, UCPN - Union of Chiefs and Populations of the North, UDPS - Union for Democracy and Social Progress, UDS-Togo - Union of Socialist Democrats of Togo, UFC - Union of Forces for Change, UJD - Union of Justice and Democracy (authoritarian), ULI - Union of Independent Liberals, UTD - Togolese Union for Democracy (right-wing).
Coalitions: Coalition of Democratic Forces (CFD) [Boycotted the 2002 National Assembly Election] Parties in the coalition include the Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development (ADDI), Action Committee for Renewal (CAR), Democratic Convention of African Peoples (CDPA), Democratic Convention of African Peoples-Togolese Branch (CDPA-BT), Pan-African Patriotic Convergence (CPP), Party for Democracy and Renewal (PDR), Socialist Party for Renewal (PSR), Union of Socialist Democrats of Togo (UDS-Togo), and the Union of Forces for Change (UFC); Democratic Opposition [Contested the 2005 Presidential Election] Member parties in the coalition include the Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development (ADDI), Action Committee for Renewal (CAR), Democratic Convention of African Peoples (CDPA), Socialist Pact for Renewal (PSR), Union of Socialist Democrats of Togo (UDS-Togo), and the Union of Forces for Change (UFC); Republican Front for Alternation and Change (FRAC) [Supported Jean-Pierre Fabre in the 2010 Presidential Election] Member parties include the Union of Forces for Change (UFC), Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development (ADDI), Democratic Alliance for the Fatherland (ALLIANCE), Socialist Pact for Renewal (PSR), and the Sursaut-Togo Association.
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty: 1961, 1963, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2005, 2010
--Single Party: 1979, 1986
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1958, 1961, 1963, 1994, 1999, 2002, 2007
--Single Party: 1979, 1985, 1990
Plebiscite/Referendums: 1956, 1961, 1963, 1972, 1979, 1992
 
 
28 October 1956 Plebiscite*
Main Points: A "yes" vote supported Togo becoming an autonomous region within the French Union; A "no" vote favored continued status as a United Nations Trusteeship

Registered Voters

438,175

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

338,781 (77.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    3,003

Total Valid Votes

335,778

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

313,458

93.35%

"No" Votes

22,320

6.65%

*The United Nations General Assembly refused to accept the results of the referendum (since it did not include the option of independence) and decided to continue the UN trusteeship. Several political groups boycotted the poll.
 
17 April 1958 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

489,519

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

317,669 (64.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    6,481

Total Valid Votes

311,019

Party

Number of Seats (46)

Committee of Togolese Unity (CUT)

29

Union of Chiefs and Populations of the North (UCPN)

10

Togolese Progress Party (PTP)

3

Independents

4

 
9 April 1961 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential Republic, directly-elected president

Registered Voters

627.688

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

564.617 (90.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    2,245

Total Valid Votes

562,372

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

560,258

99.62%

"No" Votes

2,114

0.38%

 
9 April 1961 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

620,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Sylvanus Olympio of the Party of Togolese Unity (PUT) [formerly the Committee of Togolese Unity], was elected unopposed.
 
9 April 1961 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

620,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (52)

Party of Togolese Unity (PUT)

52

 
May 1963 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential Republic, Unicameral Legislature

Registered Voters

639,524

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

582,309 (91.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    5,423

Total Valid Votes

576,886

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

568,402

98.5%

"No" Votes

8,484

1.5%

 
May 1963 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

639,524

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Nicolas Grunitzky of the Togolese People's Movement (MPT) was elected unopposed with 99.87% of the vote.
 
May 1963 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

639,524

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

A single list of candidates was approved by 98.61% of the electorate. No figures are available.
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Rally of the Togolese People (RPT)

9 January 1972 Referendum
Ballot Question: Do you want General Eyadéma to continue the functions of president of the republic entrusted to him by the army and the people?

Registered Voters

880,890

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

868,989 (98.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       170

Total Valid Votes

868,819

"Yes" Votes

867,941 (99.90%)

"No" Votes

       878 (00.10%)

30 December 1979 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential Republic, One Party State

Registered Voters

1,303,970

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,295,609 (99.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

            44

Total Valid Votes

1,295,565

"Yes" Votes

1,293,872 (99.87%)

"No" Votes

       1,693 (00.13%)

30 December 1979 Presidential Election (Gnassingbé Eyadéma re-elected unopposed with 99.97% of the vote)

30 December 1979 National Assembly Election (67 Seats)

24 March 1985 National Assembly Election (77 Seats)

21 December 1986 Presidential Election (Gnassingbé Eyadéma re-elected unopposed with 99.95% of the vote)

4 March 1990 National Assembly Election (77 Seats)

Note: Eyadéma changed his first name from Étienne to Gnassingbé in 1974.
 
27 September 1992 Constitutional Referendum [Results by Region]
Main Points: Multiparty System

Registered Voters

1,972,676

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,464,479 (74.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     15,679

Total Valid Votes

1,448,800

Results

Number of Votes

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

1,436,858

99.18%

"No" Votes

11,942

0.82%

 
25 August 1993 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (39.5%)

Candidate (Party)

% of Votes

Gnassingbé Eyadéma (RPT)

96.42%

Jacques Amouzou

1.90%

Adani Ifé (ATD)

1.67%

*Main opposition parties boycotted the election.
 
6 & 20 February 1994 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (approx. 65%)

Party

Number of Seats (81)

Action Committee for Renewal (CAR)

36

Rally of the Togolese People (RPT)

35

Togolese Union for Democracy (UTD)

7

Union of Justice and Democracy (UJD)

2

Coordination of New Forces (CFN)

1

*The opposition Union of Forces for Change (UFC) boycotted the election.
 
21 June 1998 Presidential Election  [Results by Region]

Registered Voters

2,273,190

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,587,027 (69.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     28,159

Total Valid Votes

1,558,868

Candidate (Party)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Gnassingbé Eyadéma (RPT)

811,837

52.1%

Gilchrist Olympio (UFC)

532,771

34.2%

Yawovi Agboyibo (CAR)

149,006

9.6%

Zarifou Ayéva (PDR)

47,078

3.0%

Léopold Gnininvi (CDPA)

12,715

0.8%

Jacques Amouzou (ULI)

5,461

0.4%

 
21 March 1999 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

2,270,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (81)

Rally of the Togolese People (RPT)

79

Independents

2

*Boycotted by most opposition parties.
 
27 October 2002 National Assembly Election*      

Registered Voters

2,841,079

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,915,875 (67.4%)

Party

Number of Seats (81)

Rally of the Togolese People (RPT)

72

Rally for the Support of Democracy and Development (RSDD)

3

Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS)

2

Togolese Youth Movement (JUVENTO)

2

Believers' Movement for Equality and Peace (MOCEP)

1

Independents

1

*Nine opposition political parties known as the Coalition of Democratic Forces (CFD) boycotted the election.
 
1 June 2003 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

3,223,353

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,327,735

Candidate (Party)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Gnassingbé Eyadéma (RPT)

1,345,159

57.8%

Emmanuel Bob-Akitani (UFC)

784,102

33.7%

Yawovi Agboyibo (CAR)

119,372

5.1%

Maurice Dahuku Péré (PSR)

51,304

2.2%

Edem Kodjo (CPP)

22,482

1.0%

Nicolas Lawson

4,847

0.2%

Léopold Gnininvi (CDPA)**

409

0.0%

*Official results published by the Constitutional Court state that 2,327,735 valid votes were cast, but the distribution of votes among candidates totals 2,327,675 (a difference of 60 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of valid votes cast.
**Léopold Gnininvi withdrew from the election in late May 2003, but his name remained on the ballot and he garnered votes.
 

Registered Voters

3,599,306

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,288,279 (63.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     88,005

Total Valid Votes

2,200,274

Candidate (Party) [Coalition]

% of Votes

Faure Gnassingbé (RPT)

60.15%

Emmanuel Bob-Akitani (UFC) [Democratic Opposition]

38.25%

Nicolas Lawson (PRR)*

1.04%

Harry Olympio (RSDD)

0.55%

*Nicolas Lawson withdrew from the election on 23 April 2005, but his name remained on the ballot and he garnered votes.
 
14 October 2007 National Assembly Election [Seats Won by Region & Prefecture]

Registered Voters

2,974,718

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,526,049 (84.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   181,941

Total Valid Votes

2,344,108

Party

Number of Seats (81)

Rally of the Togolese People (RPT)

50

Union of Forces for Change (UFC)

27

Action Committee for Renewal (CAR)

4

 
4 March 2010 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

3,277,492

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,119,829 (64.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     79,283

Total Valid Votes

2,040,546

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Faure Gnassingbé (RPT) 1,242,409 60.89%
Jean-Pierre Fabre (UFC) [FRAC] 692,554 33.94%
Yawovi Agboyibo (CAR) 60,370 2.96%
Agbéyomé Kodjo (OBUTS) 17,393 0.85%
Brigitte Adjamagbo-Johnson (CDPA) 13,452 0.66%
Bassabi Kagbara (PDP) 8,341 0.41%
Nicolas Lawson (PRR) 6,027 0.30%