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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Madagascar
 
Political Profile
Political System: Civilian-led, Military-backed Transitional Government 
President of the High Transitional Authority: Andry Rajoelina [since 17 March 2009; elected 2001, re-elected 2006] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 5-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off). Note: The High Transitional Authority (HAT) is a provisional executive body that came to power following a 2009 coup that forced the elected President Marc Ravalomanana from power.
Prime Minister: Omer Beriziky (LEADER-Fanilo) [since 2 November 2011] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
Transitional Parliament [bicameral] Note: The Senate and National Assembly were dissolved in March 2009. As part of a political agreement between the government and opposition, a two-chamber transitional parliament was appointed in October 2010.
--Higher Transitional Council (90 Seats) Members are appointed by the Transitional President on proposition of the political parties and associations.
--Transitional Congress (256 Seats) Members are appointed by the Transitional President on proposition of the political parties and associations.
Political Situation since Independence
1960-1972 Restricted Democratic Practice
1972-1976 Military Regime
1976-1989 One Party State (FNDR) [see note]
1989-1993 Multiparty Transition
1993-2009 Democracy
2009-        Civilian-led, Military-backed Transitional Government
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 6, Civil Liberties - 4, Status: Partly Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 8 May 2013 (First Round); 3 July 2013 (Second Round, if necessary)
Next Scheduled Senatorial Election: N/A
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election: 3 July 2013
Political Parties: ACCORD - Christian Action of Regional Cadres and Businessmen for Development (Christian), AFFA - Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony, AKFM - Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar, AKFM-Fanavaozana - Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar-Renewal (far-left), AREMA - Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution, AVI - Judged by Your Work, CSCD - Confederation of Civil Societies for Development, CSDDM - Support Group for Democracy and Development in Madagascar, FAMIMA - Association of United Malagasys (far-left), FARIMBONA - Acting Together, FIHAVANANTSIKA*, FIVOARANA – Progress, FP - National Union, GRAD-Iloafo - Action and Reflection Group for the Development of Madagascar, LEADER-Fanilo - Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for Recovery, MADAGASIKARANTSIKA - Our Madagascar, MFM - Movement for Proletarian Power/Movement for the Progress of Madagascar (left-wing), MONIMA - National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar, PMDM - Militant Party for the Development of Madagascar (far-left), PSD - Social Democratic Party, RPSD - Rally for Socialism and Democracy (left-wing), TAMBATRA - Union, TIM - I Love Madagascar, UDECMA - Malagasy Christian Democratic Union, UNDD - National Union for Development and Democracy, VATOMIZANA - Weights and Measures, VONJY - Popular Impulse for National Unity, VSM - Monima Socialist Organization.
Coalitions: Committee of Living Forces (CFV) [Contested the 1992 Presidential, 1993 National Assembly, and 1996 Presidential Elections] Member parties are not available; Militant Movement for Malagasy Socialism (MMSM) [Contested the 1992 presidential election] Member parties include the Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (AKFM), National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (MONIMA), and some members of the Popular Impulse for National Unity (VONJY); National Front for the Defense of the Revolution (FNDR) [Sole legal political grouping from 1976 to 1989] Member parties include the Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (AKFM), Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar-Renewal (AKFM-Fanavaozana), Movement for Proletarian Power (MFM), National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (MONIMA), Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA), Popular Impulse for National Unity (VONJY), and the Monima Socialist Organization (VSM); Pro-government political parties supporting President Zafy [Contested the 1993 National Assembly Election] Member parties include the Christian Action of Regional Cadres and Businessmen for Development (ACCORD), Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar-Renewal (AKFM-Fanavaozana), Confederation of Civil Societies for Development (CSCD), Support Group for Democracy and Development in Madagascar (CSDDM), Acting Together (FARIMBONA), Action and Reflection Group for the Development of Madagascar (GRAD-Iloafo), Measures and Weights (VATOMIZANA), and the National Union for Development and Democracy (UNDD). The Committee for Living Forces (CFV) coalition was the largest component of this alliance.
*Translated version of the political party acronym is not available.
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty: 1965, 1972, 1992, 1996, 2001, 2006
--Single Party: 1982, 1989
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1960, 1965, 1970, 1993, 1998, 2002, 2007
--Single Party: 1977, 1983, 1989
Referendums: 1958, 1972, 1975, 1992, 1995, 1998, 2007, 2010
 
 
28 September 1958 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Approval of the constitution meant internal autonomy within the "French Community." France agreed to grant independence to any territory that rejected the proposed constitution.
Ballot Question: Do you approve the Constitution proposed by the Government of the Republic?

Registered Voters

2,154,939

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,767,475 (82.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     11,859

Total Valid Votes

1,755,616

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 1,363,059 77.64%
"No" Votes 392,557 22.36%
 
04 September 1960 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (107)

Social Democratic Party (PSD)

75

Others

32

 
30 March 1965 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Philibert Tsiranana of the Social Democratic Party (PSD), who was indirectly elected President in 1959, was re-elected unopposed. No figures are available.
 
08 August 1965 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (107)

Social Democratic Party (PSD)

104

Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (AKFM)

03

 
06 September 1970 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

2,756,978

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,612,656 (94.8%)

Party

Number of Seats (107)

Social Democratic Party (PSD)

104

Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (AKFM)

03

 
30 January 1972 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Philibert Tsiranana of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) was re-elected unopposed. No figures are available.
 
08 October 1972 Referendum
Main Points: Full powers granted to General Gabriel Ramanantsoa for five years

Registered Voters

3,448,203

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,906,469 (84.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     18,567

Total Valid Votes

2,887,902

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 2,784,687 96.43%
"No" Votes 103,215 3.57%
 
21 December 1975 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Confirmation of Didier Ratsiraka as president for a 7-year term, Presidential Republic, Unicameral Legislature, Creation of a High Revolutionary Council, Creation of a military committee for development

Registered Voters

3,698,541

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,394,115 (91.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     32,101

Total Valid Votes

3,362,014

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 3,213,146 95.57%
"No" Votes 148,868 4.43%
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Political Grouping: National Front for the Defense of the Revolution (FNDR) [See note]

30 June 1977 National People's Assembly Election

Registered Voters

4,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (137)

Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA)

112

Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (AKFM)

16

Popular Impulse for National Unity (VONJY)

07

Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA)

02

07 November 1982 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Candidate (Party)

% of Votes

Didier Ratsiraka (AREMA)

80.17%

Monja Jaona (MONIMA)

19.83%

28 August 1983 National People's Assembly Election

Registered Voters

4,838,279

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,519,997 (72.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     87,734

Total Valid Votes

3,432,263

Party

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Number of Seats (137)

Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA)

2,239,771

65.25%

117

Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (AKFM)

300,809

8.76%

09

Popular Impulse for National Unity (VONJY)

364,640

10.62%

06

Movement for Proletarian Power (MFM)

372,842

10.86%

03

National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (MONIMA)

126,452

3.68%

02

Monima Socialist Organization (VSM)

15,727

0.48%

-

Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA)

12,022

0.35%

-

12 March 1989 Presidential Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Candidate (Party)

% of Votes

Didier Ratsiraka (AREMA)

63%

Manandafy Rakotonirina (MFM)

20%

Jérôme Marojama Razanabahiny (VONJY)

15%

Monja Jaona (MONIMA)

03%

*Figures in the table are rounded to the nearest whole number. Ratsiraka won 62.7% of the vote, but detailed percentage figures for the other candidates is not available.
28 May 1989 National People's Assembly Election

Registered Voters

5,741,974

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,283,512 (74.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   116,154

Total Valid Votes

4,167,358

Party

% of Votes

Number of Seats (137)

Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA)

66.8%

120

Movement for Proletarian Power (MFM)

11.0%

07

Popular Impulse for National Unity (VONJY)

9.7%

04

Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar-Renewal
(AKFM-Fanavaozana)

4.2%

03

Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (AKFM)

6.1%

02

National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (MONIMA)

1.6%

01

Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA)

0.4%

-

Note: The FNDR was not a single party, but a grouping of political parties that had to endorse the revolutionary principles and programs in the Charter of the Malagasy Socialist Revolution (commonly called the "Red Book") in order to participate in the electoral process. Political activity outside of the Front was prohibited, effectively creating a one-party state.
 
19 August 1992 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential Republic, Bicameral Legislature

Registered Voters

5,467,031

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,554,596 (65.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   348,470

Total Valid Votes

3,206,126

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 2,330,641 72.69%
"No" Votes 875,485 27.31%
 
November 1992/February 1993 Presidential Election
First Round (25 November 1992)

Registered Voters

6,130,016

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,532,035 (73.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   442,618

Total Valid Votes

4,089,417

Second Round (10 February 1993)

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Candidate (Party) [Coalition]

First Round

Second Round

% of Votes

% of Votes

Albert Zafy (UNDD) [FVR]

45.16%

66.74%

Didier Ratsiraka [MMSM]

29.22%

33.26%

Manandafy Rakotonirina (MFM)

10.21%

-

Marson Evariste (RPSD)

4.60%

-

Ruffine Tsiranana (PSD)

3.51%

-

Jacques Rabemananjara

2.87%

-

Nirina Andriamanalina

2.25%

-

Tovonanahary Rabetsitonta (GRAD-Iloafo)

2.19%

-

 
16 June 1993 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

6,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,600,000 (approx. 60%)

Party/Coalition

Number of Seats (138)

Supporters of President Zafy

75

 

Committee of Living Forces (CFV)

 

47

Confederation of Civil Societies for Development (CSCD)

08

National Union for Development and Democracy (UNDD)

07

Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar-Renewal (AKFM-Fanavaozana)

05

Support Group for Democracy and Development in Madagascar (CSDDM)

02

Christian Action of Regional Cadres and Businessmen for Development (ACCORD)

02

Acting Together (FARIMBONA)

02

Action and Reflection Group for the Development of Madagascar (GRAD-Iloafo)

01

Measures and Weights (VATOMIZANA)

01

Militant Party for the Development of Madagascar (PMDM)

15

Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for Recovery (LEADER-Fanilo)

13

Progress (FIVOARANA)

02

Rally for Socialism and Democracy (RPSD)

08

Association of United Malagasys (FAMIMA)

11

Others

10

Vacant

04

 
17 September 1995 Referendum
Main Points: Constitutional amendment that allows the president to appoint the Prime Minister instead of the National Assembly.

Registered Voters

5,894,982

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,854,792 (65.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   489,128

Total Valid Votes

3,365,664

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 2,139,378 63.56%
"No" Votes 1,226,286 36.44%
 
November/December 1996 Presidential Election
First Round (03 November 1996)

Registered Voters

6,453,612

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,769,623 (58.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   159,834

Total Valid Votes

3,609,789

Second Round (29 December 1996)

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Candidate (Party) [Coalition]

First Round

Second Round

Number of Votes

% of Votes

% of Votes

Didier Ratsiraka (AREMA)

1,321,388

36.61%

50.71%

Albert Zafy (UNDD) [CFV]

844,459

23.39%

49.29%

Herizo Razafimahaleo (LEADER-Fanilo)

546,211

15.13%

-

Norbert Ratsirahonana (AVI)

365,896

10.14%

-

Richard Andriamanjato (AKFM-Fanavaozana)

178,352

4.94%

-

Jean Eugène Voninahitsy

100,652

2.79%

-

Alain Ramaroson

55,930

1.55%

-

Guy Willy Razanamasy (CSCD)

42,873

1.19%

-

Jérôme Marojama Razanabahiny

32,812

0.91%

-

Tovonanahary Rabetsitonta (GRAD-Iloafo)

32,518

0.90%

-

Philippe Rakotovao

28,777

0.80%

-

Evariste Vazaha

16,071

0.45%

-

Albert Andriamanana

15,202

0.42%

-

Charles Ramanantsoa

15,160

0.42%

-

Désiré Rakotoarijaona

13,488

0.37%

-

 
15 March 1998 Referendum
Main Points: Constitutional amendments that allow the President to dissolve Parliament and appoint the Prime Minister, Division of the country into 6 provinces

Registered Voters

4,557,362

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,202,770 (70.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   210,792

Total Valid Votes

2,991,978

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 1,524,581 50.96%
"No" Votes 1,467,397 49.04%
 
17 May 1998 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

% of Votes

Number of Seats (150)

Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA)

24.74%

63

Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery (LEADER-Fanilo)

13.32%

16

Judged by Your Work (AVI)

6.90%

14

Rally for Socialism and Democracy (RPSD)

4.75%

11

Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony (AFFA)

4.60%

06

Movement for the Progress of Madagascar (MFM)

-

03

Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar-Renewal   (AKFM-Fanavaozana)

-

03

Confederation of Civil Societies for Development (CSCD)

-

01

Action and Reflection Group for the Development of Madagascar (GRAD-Iloafo)

-

01

Independents

26.81%

32

 
16 December 2001 Presidential Election*
First Round (16 December 2001)

Registered Voters

6,367,610

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,256,508 (66.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     67,494

Total Valid Votes

4,189,014

First Round Recount**

Registered Voters

6,720,218

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,565,708 (67.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     83,392

Total Valid Votes

4,482,316

Candidate (Party)

First Round

First Round Recount

Number of Votes

% of Votes

% of Votes

Marc Ravalomanana (TIM)

1,945,242

46.44%

51.46%

Didier Ratsiraka (AREMA)

1,701,094

40.61%

35.90%

Albert Zafy (AFFA)

223,831

5.34%

5.07%

Herizo Razafimahaleo (LEADER-Fanilo)

178,972

4.27%

4.00%

Daniel Rajakoba

74,304

1.77%

2.01%

Patrick Rajaonary

65,571

1.57%

1.55%

*The second round of the presidential election between Ravalomanana and Ratsiraka was twice postponed and eventually cancelled.
**Amid growing political and national instability, Ravalomana and Ratsiraka agreed to a recount of the 16 December 2001 presidential election. On 29 April 2002, the High Constitutional Court released the results of the recount.
 
15 December 2002 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

5,967,249

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,048,689 (67.8%)

Party

Number of Seats (160)

I Love Madagascar (TIM)

103

National Union (FP)

22

Rally for Socialism and Democracy (RPSD)

05

Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA)

03

Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery (LEADER-Fanilo)

02

Others

03

Independents

22

 
03 December 2006 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

7,317,790

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,531,946 (61.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     87,196

Total Valid Votes

4,444,750

Candidate (Party)

Number of Votes

% of Votes

Marc Ravalomanana (TIM)

2,435,199

54.79%

Jean Lahiniriko

517,994

11.65%

Roland Ratsiraka

450,717

10.14%

Herizo Razafimahaleo (LEADER-Fanilo)

401,473

9.03%

Norbert Ratsirahonana (AVI)

187,552

4.22%

Ny Hasina Andriamanjato

185,624

4.18%

Elia Ravelomanantsoa (MADAGASIKARANTSIKA)

113,897

2.56%

Pety Rakotoniaina (TAMBATRA)

74,566

1.68%

Jules Randrianjoary

33,463

0.75%

Daniel Rajakoba (FIHAVANANTSIKA)

28,363

0.64%

Manandafy Rakotonirina (MFM)

14,712

0.33%

Philippe Tsiranana

1,128

0.03%

Ferdinand Razakarimanana

41

0.00%

Roindefo Monja

21

0.00%

 
04 April 2007 Referendum
Main Points: Constitutional amendments that introduce emergency powers for the President, adoption of English as the third official language, and redefinition of the country's administrative divisions.

Registered Voters

7,381,091

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,224,088 (43.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     66,346

Total Valid Votes

3,157,742

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 2,378,650 75.33%
"No" Votes 779,092 24.67%
 
23 September 2007 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (127)

I Love Madagascar (TIM)

105

Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery (LEADER-Fanilo)

01

Others

10

Independents

11

 
17 November 2010 Constitutional Referendum*
Main Points: Reduction of the age of eligibility for presidential office from 40 years to 35 years; Clause requiring presidential candidates to have lived in Madagascar for at least six months prior to the date of the election.

Registered Voters

7,151,223

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,761,977 (52.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   179,423

Total Valid Votes

3,582,554

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 2,657,962 74.19%
"No" Votes 924,592 25.81%
*Three of the country's main political parties - Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), I Love Madagascar (TIM), and Judged by Your Work (AVI) - urged their supporters to boycott the vote.