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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Rwanda
 
Political Profile
Political System: Restricted Democratic Practice
President: Paul Kagame (FPR) [since 22 April 2000; appointed vice president 1994, elected president by the Transitional National Assembly 2000, directly elected 2003, re-elected 2010] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 7-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Prime Minister: Pierre Damien Habumuremyi [since 7 October 2011] The Prime Minister is appointed by the president.
Parliament [bicameral]
--Senate (26 Seats) 12 members are indirectly elected by provincial and sectoral councils, representing each province and the city of Kigali, 8 members are appointed by the president, 4 are appointed by the Forum of Political Organizations, and 2 members represent the universities and institutions of higher learning; members serve 8-year terms.
--Chamber of Deputies (80 Seats) 53 members are elected by direct popular vote using the party-list proportional representation system, 24 women are elected by electoral colleges from each province and the city of Kigali, 2 members are elected by the National Youth Council, and 1 member is elected by the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled; members serve 5-year terms.
Electoral Authority: National Electoral Commission
Political Situation since Independence
1962-1965 Restricted Democratic Practice
1965-1973 One Party State (MDR-PARMEHUTU)
1973-1975 Military Regime
1975-1978 [De Facto] One Party State (MRND)
1978-1991 One Party State (MRND)
1991-1994 Multiparty Transition
1994-2003 Transitional Government
2003-        Restricted Democratic Practice
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 6, Civil Liberties - 5, Status: Not Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2017
Next Scheduled Chamber of Deputies Election: 2013
Political Parties: APROSOMA - Association for Social Promotion of the Masses (predominately ethnic Hutu), FPR - Rwandan Patriotic Front (predominately ethnic Tutsi), MDR-PARMEHUTU - Democratic Republican Movement-Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (predominately ethnic Hutu), MRND - National Revolutionary Movement for Development, MRNDD - National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (predominately ethnic Hutu), PARMEHUTU - Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (predominately ethnic Hutu), PDC - Centrist Democratic Party (predominately ethnic Hutu, center-right, christian-democratic, formerly Christian Democratic Party), PDI - Ideal Democratic Party (formerly Islamic Democratic Party), PL - Liberal Party (predominately ethnic Hutu, center-left, liberal), PPC - Party for Progress and Concord, PSD - Social Democratic Party (predominately ethnic Hutu, left-wing, social-democratic), PSP - Prosperity and Solidarity PartyPSR - Rwandan Socialist Party (social-democratic), RADER - Rwandese Democratic Rally, UDPR - Democratic Union of the Rwandan People, UNAR - Rwandese National Union (predominately ethnic Tutsi, monarchist).
Coalitions: Rwandan Patriotic Front-led Coalition [Contested 2003 Chamber of Deputies Election] Member parties include the Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR), Centrist Democratic Party (PDC), Ideal Democratic Party (PDI), Rwandan Socialist Party (PSR), and the Democratic Union of the Rwandan People (UDPR); [Contested the 2008 Chamber of Deputies Election] Member parties include the Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR), Centrist Democratic Party (PDC), Ideal Democratic Party (PDI), Party for Progress and Concord (PPC), Prosperity and Solidarity Party (PSP), Rwandan Socialist Party (PSR), and the Democratic Union of the Rwandan People (UDPR).
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty: 2003, 2010
--Single Party: 1965, 1969, 1978, 1983, 1988
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1961, 2003, 2008
--Single Party: 1965, 1969, 1981, 1983, 1988
Referenda: 1961, 1978, 2003
 
 
25 September 1961 Referendum
Question 1
Ballot Question: Should the Monarchy in Rwanda be Preserved?

Registered Voters

1,337,342

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,274,631 (95.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     14,329

Total Valid Votes

1,260,302

Question 2
Ballot Question 2: Should Kigeri V remain King of Rwanda?

Registered Voters

1,337,342

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,273,691 (95.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     11,526

Total Valid Votes

1,262,165

Results Question 1 Question 2
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 253,963 20.15% 257,510 20.40%
"No" Votes 1,006,339 79.85% 1,004,655 79.60%
 
25 September 1961 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

1,337,096

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,278,144 (95.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     22,248

Total Valid Votes

1,255,896

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (44)
Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (PARMEHUTU) 974,329 77.58% 35
Rwandese National Union (UNAR) 211,929 16.87% 7
Association for Social Promotion of the Masses (APROSOMA) 44,830 3.56% 2
Rwandese Democratic Rally (RADER) 4,172 0.33% -
Others 20,636 1.64% -
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (PARMEHUTU) 1965-1969; Democratic Republican Movement-Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement (MDR-PARMEHUTU) 1969-1973
3 October 1965 Presidential Election (Grégoire Kayibanda elected unopposed)

Registered Voters

1,440,440

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,261,458 (87.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     24,804

Total Valid Votes

1,236,654 (98.03%)

Grégoire Kayibanda

1,236,654 (100.00%)

3 October 1965 National Assembly Election (47 Seats)
28 September 1969 Presidential Election (Grégoire Kayibanda re-elected unopposed)
28 September 1969 National Assembly Election (47 Seats)
 
17 December 1978 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential Republic, No Presidential Term Limits, Sole Legal Party

Registered Voters

2,091,688

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,054,813

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
Yes Votes 1,830,678 89.09%
No Votes 224,135 10.91%
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND) 1975-1991; National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRNDD) 1991
24 December 1978 Presidential Election (Juvénal Habyarimana elected unopposed with 98.99% of the vote)
28 December 1981 National Development Council Election (64 Seats)

Registered Voters

2,244,547

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,165,275 (96.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     64,505

Total Valid Votes

2,100,770 (97.02%)

MRND

2,100,700 (100.00%)

19 December 1983 Presidential Election (Juvénal Habyarimana re-elected unopposed with 99.97% of the vote)
26 December 1983 National Development Council (70 Seats)

Registered Voters

2,433,265

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,364,592

MRND

2,364,592 (100.00%)

19 December 1988 Presidential Election (Juvénal Habyarimana re-elected unopposed with 99.98% of the vote)
26 December 1988 National Development Council (70 Seats)
 
26 May 2003 Constitutional Referendum [Results by Province]
Main Points: Presidential Republic, Bicameral Parliament, Bans inciting racial hatred

Registered Voters

3,863,965

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,472,200 (89.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   119,447

Total Valid Votes

3,352,753

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 3,132,291 93.42%
"No" Votes 220,462 6.58%
 
25 August 2003 Presidential Election [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

3,948,749

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,812,567 (96.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     83,291

Total Valid Votes

3,729,276

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Paul Kagame (FPR) 3,544,777 95.05%
Faustin Twagiramungu 134,865 3.62%
Jean-Népomuscène Nayinzira 49,634 1.33%
 
29-30 September & 2 October 2003 Chamber of Deputies Election* [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

3,958,058

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,818,603 (96.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     58,001

Total Valid Votes

3,760,602

Party/Coalition Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (53)**
Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR)-led Coalition 2,774,661 73.78% 40

Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR)


33
Centrist Democratic Party (PDC)*** 3
Ideal Democratic Party (PDI)*** 2
Democratic Union of the Rwandan People (UDPR) 1
Rwandan Socialist Party (PSR) 1
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 463,067 12.31% 7
Liberal Party (PL) 396,978 10.56% 6
Party for Progress and Concord (PPC) 83,563 2.22% -
Independents 42,333 1.13% -
*Representatives of the National Youth Council and the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled were indirectly-elected on 29 September 2003. The directly-elected members were elected on 30 September, and the women's representatives were indirectly-elected on 2 October 2003.
**53 Members are directly elected, an additional 27 members are indirectly elected.
***Due to a provision in the 2003 constitution that prohibits political parties from having religious, ethnic, or any other division seen as discriminatory, the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) was renamed the Centrist Democratic Party, while the Islamic Democratic Party (PDI) became the Ideal Democratic Party.
 
15-18 September 2008 Chamber of Deputies Election*/**

Registered Voters

4,769,228

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/Coalition Number of Seats (53)***
Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR)-led Coalition 42

Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR)
36
Centrist Democratic Party (PDC) 1
Ideal Democratic Party (PDI) 1
Democratic Union of the Rwandan People (UDPR) 1
Party for Progress and Concord (PPC) 1
Prosperity and Progress Party (PSP) 1
Rwandan Socialist Party (PSR) 1
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 7
Liberal Party (PL) 4
Independent -
*The number of registered voters is distributed as follows (Rwanda: 4,752,540; Abroad: 16,688). Further data regarding total votes cast, valid votes, and the votes won by party/coalition isn't included in the table due to conflicting figures and a lack of accurate results regarding voters abroad.
**The directly-elected members were elected on 15 September 2008. Indirect elections for the women's representatives took place on 16 September, representatives of the National Youth Council were chosen on 17 September, and the representative of the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled was selected on 18 September 2008.
***53 Members are directly elected, an additional 27 members are indirectly elected.
 
9 August 2010 Presidential Election [Results by Province]

Registered Voters

5,178,492

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

5,049,302 (97.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     65,912

Total Valid Votes

4,983,390

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Paul Kagame (FPR) 4,638,560 93.08%
Jean Damascene Ntawukuriryayo (PSD) 256,488 5.15%
Prosper Higiro (PL) 68,235 1.37%
Alvera Mukabaramba (PPC) 20,107 0.40%