Make your own free website on Tripod.com

AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

Home | About the Database | Terms & Definitions | Election Calendar | Election Chronology | Recent Elections | Electoral Authorities | Sub-National Elections | Freedom/Democracy/Human Rights | Site Updates | Links
Elections in Ghana
 
Political Profile
Political System: Democracy
President: John Dramani Mahama (NDC) [since 24 July 2012; took office following the death of President John Atta Mills, who was elected in 2008] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 4-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Parliament [unicameral] (230 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post system; members serve 4-year terms.
Electoral Authority: Electoral Commission
Political Situation since Independence
1957-1958 Democracy
1958-1964 Restricted Democratic Practice
1964-1966 One Party State (CPP)
1966-1969 Military Regime
1969-1972 Democracy
1972-1979 Military Regime
1979-1981 Democracy
1981-1992 Military Regime
1992-1996 Emerging Democracy
1996-        Democracy
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 1, Civil Liberties - 2, Status: Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 7 December 2012 (First Round)
Next Scheduled Parliamentary Election: 28 December 2012
Political Parties: ACP - Action Congress Party, APRP - All People's Republican Party, AYA - Anlo Youth Association, CPP - Convention People's Party, DPP - Democratic People's Party, EGLE - Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere, FY - Federation of Youth, GCP - Ghana Congress Party, GCPP - Great Consolidated Popular Party, MAP - Muslim Association Party, NAL - National Alliance of Liberals, NCP - National Convention Party, NDC - National Democratic Congress, NIP - National Independence Party, NLM - National Liberation Movement, NPP - New Patriotic Party, NPP - Northern People's Party, NRP - National Reform Party, PAP - People's Action Party, PCP - People's Convention Party, PFP - Popular Front Party, PHP - People's Heritage Party, PNC - People's National Convention, PNP - People's National Party, PP - Progress Party, SDF - Social Democratic Front, TC - Togoland Congress, TFP - Third Force Party, UGM - United Ghana Movement, UNC - United National Convention, UNP - United Nationalist Party, UP - United Party.
Coalitions: Grand Coalition [Contested the 2004 Presidential Election] Member parties include the People's National Convention (PNC), Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere (EGLE), and Great Consolidated People's Party (GCPP); Great Alliance [Contested the 1996 Presidential Election] Member parties include the New Patriotic Party (NPP) and the People's Convention Party (PCP); Progressive Alliance [Contested the 1992 Presidential Election] Member parties include the National Democratic Congress (NDC), Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere (EGLE), and the National Convention Party (NCP); [Contested the 1996 Presidential Election] Member parties include the National Democratic Congress (NDC), Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere (EGLE), and the Democratic People's Party (DPP).
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty: 1960, 1979, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004
--Single Party: 1965
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1951, 1954, 1956, 1969, 1979, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004
--Single Party: 1965
Referenda/Plebiscites
--National: 1960, 1964, 1978, 1992
--Sub-National: 1956
 
 
8 February 1951 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

663,069

Party Number of Seats (38)*
Convention People's Party (CPP) 34
United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) 2
Independents 2
*38 out of 84 members were directly-elected; 37 members were indirectly-elected by territorial councils, six were appointed to represent commercial interests, and three were ex-officio members appointed by the Governor.
 
15 June 1954 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (104)
Convention People's Party (CPP) 71
Northern People's Party (NPP) 12
Togoland Congress (TC) 2
Ghana Congress Party (GCP) 1
Muslim Association Party (MAP) 1
Anlo Youth Association (AYA) 1
Independents 16
 
17 July 1956 Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

1,392,874

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

   697,257

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (104)
Convention People's Party (CPP) 398,141 57.10% 71
Northern People's Party (NPP) 72,440 10.39% 15
National Liberation Movement (NLM) 145,657 20.89% 12
Togoland Congress (TC) 20,352 2.92% 2
Muslim Association Party (MAP) 11,111 1.59% 1
Federation of Youth (FY) 10,745 1.54% 1
Independents 38,811 5.57% 2
 
27 April 1960 Plebiscite
Main Points: Presidential Republic, Increased Presidential Powers, Unitary state without any federal traits
Ballot Question: Do you accept the draft republican Constitution for Ghana as set out in the White Paper issued by the Government on 7 March 1960?

Registered Voters

2,098,651

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,140,165

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 1,008,740 88.47%
"No" Votes 131,425 11.53%
 
27 April 1960 Presidential Election*
Ballot Question: Do you accept Kwame Nkrumah or Joseph Boakye Danquah as the first President under the new Constitution?

Registered Voters

2,098,651

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,140,699

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Kwame Nkrumah (CPP) 1,016,076 89.07%
Joseph Boakye Danquah (UP) 124,623 10.93%
*The presidential election was held alongside the plebiscite on the draft republican constitution. If the measure passed (as it did), the winner would be declared president of the republic.
 
31 January 1964 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Sole Legal Party, Increased Presidential Powers

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,776,372

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 2,773,920 99.91%
"No" Votes 2,452 0.09%
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Convention People's Party (CPP)
9 June 1965 National Assembly Election* (198 Seats)
*All 198 candidates were selected by the CPP Central Committee and were subsquently declared elected without the scheduled election taking place.
 
29 August 1969 National Assembly Election* [Seats Won by Region]

Registered Voters

2,360,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (140)
Progress Party (PP) 877,310 58.33% 105
National Alliance of Liberals (NAL) 463,401 30.81% 29
United Nationalist Party (UNP) 57,652 3.83% 2
People's Action Party (PAP) 51,125 3.40% 2
All People's Republican Party (APRP) 27,328 1.82% 1
Independents 27,216 1.81% 1
*Voting was delayed in two constituencies: Chiana-Paga (Upper East Region; held on 2 September 1969) and Tumu (Upper West Region; held on 3 September 1969).
 
30 March 1978 Referendum
Main Points: A union of civilian and military institutions in government
Ballot Question: "Do you approve whether or not some form of Union Government would become the basis of Ghana's political system?"

Registered Voters

4,497,803

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

2,282,813

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 1,372,427 60.11%
"No" Votes 910,386 39.89%
 
June & July 1979 Presidential Election
First Round (18 June 1979)

Registered Voters

5,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,788,209

Second Round (9 July 1979)

Registered Voters

5,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,804,402

Candidate (Party) First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
Hilla Limann (PNP) 631,559 35.32% 1,118,305 61.98%
Victor Owusu (PFP) 533,928 29.86% 686,097 38.02%
William Ofori-Atta (UNC) 311,265 17.41% - -
Frank Bernasko (ACP) 167,775 9.38% - -
Alhaji Ibrahim Mahama (SDF) 66,445 3.72% - -
John Bilson (TFP) 49,104 2.75% - -
R.P. Baffour 8,812 0.49% - -
Kwame Nyanteh 8,490 0.47% - -
Mark Diamond Addy 5,957 0.33% - -
Alhaji Imoru Ayarna 4,874 0.27% - -
 
18 June 1979 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

5,000,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,770,379

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (140)
People's National Party (PNP) 645,080 36.44% 71
Popular Front Party (PFP) 541,659 30.60% 42
United National Convention (UNC) 310,062 17.51% 13
Action Congress Party (ACP) 156,484 8.84% 10
Social Democratic Front (SDF) 69,052 3.90% 3
Third Force Party (TFP) 31,887 1.80% -
Independents 16,165 0.91% 1
 
28 April 1992 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Multiparty System, Division of Powers

Registered Voters

8,255,690

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

3,680,974

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 3,408,119 92.59%
"No" Votes 272,855 7.41%
 
3 November 1992 Presidential Election [Results by Region]

Registered Voters

8,229,902

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,127,876 (50.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   149,811

Total Valid Votes

3,978,065

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Jerry John Rawlings (NDC) [Progressive Alliance] 2,323,135 58.40%
Albert Adu Boahen (NPP) 1,204,764 30.29%
Hilla Limann (PNC) 266,710 6.70%
Kwabena Darko (NIP) 113,629 2.86%
Emmanuel Erskine (PHP) 69,827 1.76%
 
29 December 1992 Parliamentary Election* [Seats Won by Region]

Registered Voters

7,336,846**

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

2,059,415** (28.1%)

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (200)
National Democratic Congress (NDC) 1,521,629 77.53% 189
National Convention Party (NCP) 377,673 19.24% 8
Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere (EGLE) 10,098 0.51% 1
Independents 53,143 2.71% 2
*The following opposition parties boycotted the election: New Patriotic Party (NPP), People's National Convention (PNC), National Independence Party (NIP), and the People's Heritage Party (PHP).
**Registered and Total Vote figures exclude 23 constituencies with unopposed candidates.
 
7 December 1996 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

9,279,605

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

7,266,693 (78.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   120,921

Total Valid Votes

7,145,772

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Jerry John Rawlings (NDC) [Progressive Alliance] 4,099,758 57.37%
John Kufuor (NPP) [Great Alliance] 2,834,878 39.67%
Edward Mahama (PNC) 211,136 2.95%
 
7 December 1996 Parliamentary Election [Seats Won by Region]

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (200)
National Democratic Congress (NDC) 133
New Patriotic Party (NPP) 60
People's Convention Party (PCP) 5
People's National Convention (PNC) 1
Vacant* 1
*Voting was postponed in one constituency because of a legal dispute concerning the eligibility of candidates. The seat was subsequently won by the New Patriotic Party (NPP) in a by-election held in June 1997.
 
December 2000 Presidential Election
First Round (7 December 2000)

Registered Voters

10,698,652

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  6,605,084 (61.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     104,214

Total Valid Votes

  6,500,870

Second Round (28 December 2000) [Results by Region]

Registered Voters

10,698,652

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  6,459,003 (60.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       77,616

Total Valid Votes

  6,381,387

Candidate (Party) First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
John Agyekum Kufuor (NPP) 3,131,739 48.17% 3,631,263 56.90%
John Evans Atta Mills (NDC) 2,895,575 44.54% 2,750,124 43.10%
Edward Mahama (PNC) 189,659 2.92% - -
George Hagan (CPP) 115,641 1.78% - -
Augustus Obuadum "Goosie" Tanoh (NRP) 78,629 1.21% - -
Daniel Augustus Lartey (GCPP) 67,504 1.04% - -
Charles Wereko-Brobby (UGM) 22,123 0.34% - -
 
7 December 2000 Parliamentary Election [Seats Won by Region]

Registered Voters

10,698,652

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  6,633,306 (62.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     102,549

Total Valid Votes

  6,530,757

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (200)
New Patriotic Party (NPP) 2,937,386 44.98% 99
National Democratic Congress (NDC) 2,691,515 41.21% 92
People's National Convention (PNC) 224,657 3.44% 3
Convention People's Party (CPP) 85,643 1.31% 1
National Reform Party (NRP) 147,196 2.25% -
United Ghana Movement (UGM) 32,632 0.50% -
Independents & Others* 411,728 6.30% 4
Vacant** - - 1
*All four seats were won by independents.
**After a by-election held on 3 January 2001, the vacant seat was filled by the New Patriotic Party (NPP).
 
7 December 2004 Presidential Election [Results by Region]

Registered Voters

10,354,970

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  8,813,908 (85.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     188,123

Total Valid Votes

  8,625,785

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
John Agyekum Kufuor (NPP) 4,524,074 52.45%
John Evans Atta Mills (NDC) 3,850,368 44.64%
Edward Mahama (PNC) [Grand Coalition] 165,375 1.92%
George Aggudey (CPP) 85,968 1.00%
 
7 December 2004 Parliamentary Election [Seats Won by Region]

Registered Voters

10,354,970

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (230)
New Patriotic Party (NPP) 128
National Democratic Congress (NDC) 94
People's National Convention (PNC) 4
Convention People's Party (CPP) 3
Independent 1
 
December 2008 Presidential Election
First Round (7 December 2008)

Registered Voters

12,472,758

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  8,671,272 (69.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     205,438

Total Valid Votes

  8,465,834

Second Round (28 December 2008)

Registered Voters

12,472,758

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  9,094,364 (72.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       92,886

Total Valid Votes

  9,001,478

Candidate (Party) First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes

Number of Votes

% of Votes
John Evans Atta Mills (NDC) 4,056,634 47.92% 4,521,032 50.23%
Nana Akufo-Addo (NPP) 4,159,439 49.13% 4,480,446 49.77%
Paa Kwesi Nduom (CPP) 113,494 1.34% - -
Edward Mahama (PNC) 73,494 0.87% - -
Emmanuel Ansah-Antwi (DFP) 27,889 0.33% - -
Kwasi Amoafo-Yeboah 19,342 0.23% - -
Thomas Ward-Brew (DPP) 8,653 0.10% - -
Kwabena Adjei (RPD) 6,889 0.08% - -
 
7 December 2008 Parliamentary Election*

Registered Voters

12,472,758

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (230)
National Democratic Congress (NDC) 114
New Patriotic Party (NPP) 107
People's National Convention (PNC) 2
Convention People's Party (CPP) 1
Independents 4
Vacant* 2
*Petitions were filed by candidates challenging the results in two constituencies. When the results were officially declared, both the National Democratic Congress (NDC) and New Patriotic Party (NPP) each gained an additional seat, bringing their totals to 115 and 108, respectively.