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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in the Central African Republic
 
Political Profile
Political System: Emerging Democracy
President: François Bozizé [since 15 March 2003; seized power in 2003 military coup, elected 2005, re-elected 2011] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 5-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Prime Minister: Faustin-Archange Touadéra [since 22 January 2008] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
National Assembly [unicameral] (105 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the two round (run-off) system; members serve 5-year terms.
Political Situation since Independence
1960-1962 Restricted Democratic Practice
1962-1966 One Party State (MESAN)
1966-1976 Military Regime & One Party State (MESAN)
1976-1979 One Party State (MESAN)
1979-1980 Transitional Period
1980-1981 One Party State (UDC)
1981         Restricted Democratic Practice
1981-1987 Military Regime
1987-1991 One Party State (RDC)
1991-1993 Multiparty Transition
1993-2003 Democracy
2003-2005 Military Regime
2005-        Emerging Democracy
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 5, Civil Liberties - 5, Status: Partly Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2016
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election: 2016
Political Parties: ADP - Alliance for Democracy and Progress, CN - National Convention, FC - Civic Forum (conservative), FODEM - Democratic Forum for Modernity, FPO - Oubanguian Patriotic Front, FPP - Patriotic Front for Progress (social-democratic), KNK - Kwa Na Kwa Party, LÖNDÖ - Löndö Association, MDD - Movement for Democracy and Development (authoritarian), MDREC - Democratic Movement for the Renaissance and Evolution of Central Africa, MEDAC - Movement for the Democratic Evolution of Central Africa, MESAN - Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa, MLPC - Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (christian-democratic), MSA - African Socialist Movement, NAP - New Alliance for Progress, PLD - Liberal Democratic Party (liberal), PRC - Central African Republican Party, PRP - Republican Progress Party, PSD - Social Democratic Party (conservative), PUN - National Unity Party, RDA - African Democratic Rally, RDC - Central African Democratic Rally (authoritarian), UDC - Central African Democratic Union, UPR - People's Union for the Republic, URD - Union for Renewal and Democracy.
Coalitions: Concerted Democratic Forces (CFD) [Contested the 1993 Presidential Election] A coalition of the Patriotic Front for Progress (FPP) and eight smaller political parties that supported presidential candidate Abel Goumba; Union of Forces for Peace (UFAP) [Contested the 1998 National Assembly Election] Member parties with representation in the National Assembly include the Central African Democratic Rally (RDC), Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD), Patriotic Front for Progress (FPP), Social Democratic Party (PSD), Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP), National Unity Party (PUN), Democratic Forum for Modernity (FODEM), Civic Forum (FC), and People's Union for the Republic (UPR); Presidential Movement (MP) (sometimes known as the Union of Forces of Renewal - UFR) [Contested the 1998 National Assembly Election] Member parties represented in the National Assembly include the Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC) and Liberal Democratic Party (PLD); National Convergence "Kwa Na Kwa" (KNK) [Contested the 2005 Presidential & National Assembly Elections] A grouping of small political parties and independents supportive of François Bozizé.
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Multiparty: 1981, 1992, 1993, 1999, 2005, 2011
--Single Party: 1964
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1959, 1992, 1993, 1998, 2005, 2011
--Single Party: 1964, 1987
Referendums: 1958, 1981, 1986, 1994, 2004
 
 
28 September 1958 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Approval of the constitution meant internal autonomy within the "French Community." France agreed to grant independence to any territory that rejected the proposed constitution.
Ballot Question: Do you approve the Constitution proposed by the Government of the Republic?

Registered Voters

625,663

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

496,675 (79.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    3,553

Total Valid Votes

493,122

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 487,033 98.77%
"No" Votes 6,089 1.23%
 
5 & 29 April 1959 Legislative Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

631,391

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

358,055 (56.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    5,189

Total Valid Votes

352,866

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (50)
Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa (MESAN) 344,473 97.62% 48
African Socialist Movement (MSA) 6,144 1.74% -
African Democratic Rally (RDA) 2,249 0.64% -
Vacant - - 2
*The two vacant seats and a third seat won by the MESAN party, but declared illegal by Constitutional Council were filled in a by-election held on 25 September 1960. All three seats were won by the MESAN party.
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa (MESAN)
5 January 1964 Presidential Election (David Dacko re-elected unopposed)

Registered Voters

732,139

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

686,829 (93.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    4,007

Total Valid Votes

682,822

David Dacko

682,607 (99.97%)

Against

       215   (0.03%)

15 March 1964 National Assembly Election (60 Seats)

Registered Voters

728,981

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

613,600 (84.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  10,636

Total Valid Votes

602,964

MESAN

596,687 (98.96%)

Against

    6,277   (1.04%)

Note: On 14 August 1960, the National Assembly elected David Dacko president of the Central African Republic.
 
1 February 1981 Constitutional Referendum*
Main Points: Presidential Republic, Unicameral Legislature, Multiparty System

Registered Voters

928,800

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

859,447 (92.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    9,463

Total Valid Votes

849,984

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 837,410 98.55%
"No" Votes 12,360 1.45%
*The official results state that 849,984 valid votes were cast, but the distribution votes received in favor of and against the constitution total 849,770 (a difference of 214 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of valid votes cast.
 
15 March 1981 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

971,395

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

744,688 (76.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  12,742

Total Valid Votes

731,946

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
David Dacko (UDC) 374,027 51.10%
Ange-Félix Patassé (MLPC) 283,739 38.77%
François Pehoua 39,661 5.42%
Henri Maïdou (PRP) 24,007 3.28%
Abel Goumba (FPO) 10,512 1.44%
 
21 November 1986 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Sole Legal Party, General André Kolingba automatically becomes president for six years without any limits to re-election.

Registered Voters

871,395

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

763,451 (87.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    8,644

Total Valid Votes

754,807

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 696,055 92.22%
"No" Votes 58,752 7.78%
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Central African Democratic Rally (RDC)
 
25 October 1992 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

The Supreme Court annulled the results owing to widespread irregularities.
 
25 October 1992 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

The Supreme Court annulled the results owing to widespread irregularities.
 
August/September 1993 Presidential Election
First Round (22 August 1993)*

Registered Voters

1,181,874

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   809,298 (68.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

   793,971

Second Round (19 September 1993)**

Registered Voters

1,235,568

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   692,597 (56.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     13,362

Total Valid Votes

   679,235

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
Ange Félix Patassé (MLPC) 302,004 38.03% 363,297 53.49%
Abel Goumba (FPP) [CFD] 175,467 22.10% 315,935 46.51%
David Dacko (MDD) 162,721 20.49% - -
André Kolingba (RDC) 97,942 12.33% - -
Enoch Derant-Lakoué (PSD) 19,368 2.44% - -
Timothée Malendoma (FC) 16,400 2.07% - -
François Bozizé 12,159 1.53% - -
Jeanne-Marie Ruth Rolland (PRC) 8,068 1.02% - -
*Official results published by the constitutional court state that 793,971 valid votes were cast, but the distribution of votes among candidates totals 794,129 (a difference of 158 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of valid votes cast.
**Official results published by the constitutional court state that 679,235 valid votes were cast, but the distribution of votes among candidates totals 679,232 (a difference of 3 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of valid votes cast.
 
22 August & 19 September 1993 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (85)
Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC) 34
Central African Democratic Rally (RDC) 13
Patriotic Front for Progress (FPP) 7
Liberal Democratic Party (PLD) 7
Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP) 6
Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD) 6
National Convention (CN) 3
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 3
Democratic Movement for the Renaissance and Evolution of Central Africa (MDREC) 1
Central African Republican Party (PRC) 1
Civic Forum (FC) 1
Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa (MESAN) 1
Independents 2
 
28 December 1994 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential Republic, Unicameral Legislature, Prime Minister who is accountable to both President and Legislature, Decentralization

Registered Voters

1,247,290

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   561,084 (45.0%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       4,340

Total Valid Votes

   556,744

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes

460,407

82.70%

"No" Votes

96,337

17.30%

 
22 November & 13 December 1998 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

1,403,952

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/[Coalition] Number of Seats (109)
Union of Forces for Peace [UFAP] 55

Central African Democratic Rally (RDC)
20
Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD) 8
Patriotic Front for Progress (FPP) 7
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 6
Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP) 5
National Unity Party (PUN) 3
Democratic Forum for Modernity (FODEM) 2
Civic Forum (FC) 1
People's Union for the Republic (UPR) 1
Independents 2
Presidential Movement [MP] 54

Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC)
47
Liberal Democratic Party (PLD) 2
Independents 5
 
19 September 1999 Presidential Election 

Registered Voters

1,709,086

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,010,744 (59.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       7,440

Total Valid Votes

1,003,304 

Candidate (Party) % of Votes
Ange-Félix Patassé (MLPC) 51.63%
André Kolingba (RDC) 19.38%
David Dacko (MDD) 11.15%
Abel Goumba (FPP) 6.06%
Henri Pouzère 4.19%
Jean-Paul Ngoupandé (PUN) 3.14%
Enoch Derant-Lakoué (PSD) 1.33%
Charles Massi (FODEM) 1.31%
Fidèle Gouandjika 0.94%
Joseph Abossolo 0.86%
 
5 December 2004 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Semi-Presidential System, Presidential term of 5-years renewable once

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (77.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

888,374

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 811,739 91.37%
"No" Votes 76,635 8.63%
 
March/May 2005 Presidential Election
First Round (13 March 2005)

Registered Voters

1,302,930

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   946,616 (72.7%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     57,022

Total Valid Votes

   889,594

Second Round (8 May 2005)

Registered Voters

1,452,211

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

   977,730 (67.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

     32,111

Total Valid Votes

   945,619

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
François Bozizé* [KNK] 382,241 42.97% 610,903 64.60%
Martin Ziguélé (MLPC) 209,357 23.53% 334,716 35.40%
André Kolingba (RDC) 145,495 16.36% - -
Jean-Paul Ngoupandé (PUN) 45,182 5.08% - -
Charles Massi (FODEM) 28,618 3.22% - -
Abel Goumba (FPP) 22,297 2.51% - -
Henri Pouzère 18,647 2.10% - -
Josué Binoua 13,559 1.52% - -
Jean-Jacques Démafouth 11,279 1.27% - -
Auguste Boukanga (URD) 7,085 0.80% - -
Olivier Gabirault (ADP) 5,834 0.66% - -
*François Bozizé ran as an independent candidate, but he was supported by the National Convergence "Kwa na Kwa" (KNK) coalition.
 
13 March & 8 May 2005 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/[Coalition] Number of Seats (105)
National Convergence "Kwa Na Kwa" [KNK] 42
Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC) 11
Central African Democratic Rally (RDC) 8
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 4
Patriotic Front for Progress (FPP) 2
Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP) 2
Löndö Association (LÖNDÖ) 1
Independents 34
Invalidated 1
 
23 January 2011 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

1,825,735

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

1,117,447 (61.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,116,672

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
François Bozizé (KNK) 718,801 64.37%
Ange-Félix Patassé 239,279 21.43%
Martin Ziguélé (MLPC) 75,939 6.80%
Emile Gros Raymond Nakombo (RDC) 51,469 4.61%
Jean-Jacques Démafouth (NAP) 31,184 2.79%
 
23 January 2011 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party

Number of Seats (105)

Kwa Na Kwa (KNK) 26
Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC) 1
Independents 8
To Be Decided in the Second Round (27 March 2011) 68
Re-Votes (27 March 2011)** 2
*First Round provisional final results pending confirmation by the Constitutional Court.
**A new round of voting will take place in two constituencies that experienced problems/irregularities on 23 January 2011.