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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Somalia
 
Political Profile
Political System: Transitional Government
President: Hassan Sheikh Mohamud (PDP) [since 16 September 2012] The President is elected by parliament.
Prime Minister: Abdi Farah Shirdon Saaid [since 6 October 2012] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. 
Federal Parliament [Bicameral]
--Upper House (54 Seats)
--House of the People (275 Seats) Members appointed by traditional leaders in consultation with their clans.
Electoral Authority: N/A
Political Situation since Independence
1960-1969 Democracy
1969-1976 Military Regime
1976-1991 One Party State (SRSP)
1991-2000 No Central Government, National Fragmentation
2000-        Transitional Governments, National Fragmentation
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 7, Civil Liberties - 7, Status: Not Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2016
Political Parties: HDM - Hizbia Digil and Mirifle, HDMS - Somali Independent Constitutional Party, MU - Marehan Union, NUF - National United Front, NUF - National United Front, PDP - Peace and Development Party, PLGS - Liberal Somali Youth Party, PMDA - Popular Movement for Democratic Action, PMPS - Somali People's Movement Party, PRSO - Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party, PSNS - Somali National Solidarity Party, PSS - Somali Socialist Party, SANU - Somali African National Union, SDM - Somali Democratic Movement, SDU - Somali Democratic Union, SNC - Somali National Congress, SNL - Somali National League, SRSP - Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, SYL - Somali Youth League, USP - United Somali Party.
 
Election Results
 
 
ITALIAN TRUST TERRITORY (SOUTHERN SOMALIA)
Legislative Assembly: 1956, 1959
 
BRITISH SOMALILAND
Legislative Council: 1960
 
SOMALIA
Presidential: 1986, 2000 (Indirect), 2004 (Indirect), 2009 (Indirect), 2012 (Indirect)
Legislative
--Multiparty: 1964, 1969
--Single Party: 1979, 1984
Constitutional Referendums: 1961, 1979
 
 
1956 Italian Trust Territory (Southern Somalia) Legislative Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

614,909

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (60)*
Somali Youth League (SYL) 333,820 54.29% 43
Hizbia Digil and Mirifle (HDM) 159,967 26.01% 13
Somali Democratic Movement (SDM) 80,866 13.15% 3
Marehan Union (MU) 11,358 1.85% 1
Others 28,898 4.70% -
*An additional ten seats were reserved for Indians, Arabs, and other non-Somalis.
 
8 March 1959 Italian Administered Trust Territory (Southern Somalia) Legislative Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

313,760

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (90)
Somali Youth League (SYL) 237,134 75.58% 83
Somali Independent Constitutional Party (HDMS) 40,857 13.02% 5
Liberal Somali Youth Party (PLGS) 35,769 11.40% 2
*The election was boycotted by the Greater Somali League (GSL) and most of the Somali Independent Constitutional Party (HDMS).
 
17 February 1960 British Somaliland Legislative Council Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

81,366

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (33)
Somali National League (SNL) 42,395 52.10% 20
United Somali Party (USP) 13,350 16.41% 12
National United Front (NUF) 20,249 24.89% 1
Somali Youth League (SYL) 4,626 5.69%

-

Others 746 0.92%

-

 
Note: British Somaliland received its independence on June 26, 1960, and united with the former Italian trust territory of Somalia on July 1, 1960 to form the Somali Republic. The two legislative assemblies merged together forming the National Assembly of the Republic with 123 total seats.
 
20 June 1961 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: N/A

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

1,943,451

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 1,760,540 90.59%
"No" Votes 182,911 9.41%
 
30 March 1964 National Assembly Election

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

914,069

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (123)
Somali Youth League (SYL) 472,296 51.67% 69
Somali National Congress (SNC) 186,208 20.37% 22
Somali Democratic Union (SDU) 95,707 10.47% 15
Somali Independent Constitutional Party (HDMS) 80,173 8.77% 9
United Somali Party (USP) 7,552 0.83% 1
Liberal Somali Youth Party (PLGS) 6,766 0.74% 1
Somali National League (SNL) 4,354 0.48% 1
Somali African National Union (SANU) 3,930 0.43% 1
Others 57,083 6.24% 4
 
26 March 1969 National Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

879,554 (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  97,320

Total Valid Votes

782,234

Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (123)
Somali Youth League (SYL) 260,046 33.24% 73
Somali National Congress (SNC) 77,339 9.89% 11
Somali Independent Constitutional Party (HDMS) 27,681 3.54% 8
Somali African National Union (SANU) 42,006 5.37% 6
Liberal Somali Youth Party (PLGS) 25,639 3.28% 3
Somali Democratic Union (SDU) 46,064 5.89% 2
Popular Movement for Democratic Action (PMDA) 42,629 5.45% 2
Somali Socialist Party (PSS) 31,058 3.97% 2
Somali People's Movement Party (PMPS) 8,531 1.09% 2
Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party (PRSO) 16,742 2.14% 1
Somali National Solidarity Party (PSNS) 12,269 1.57% 1
United Somali Party (USP) 13,942 1.78% -
Others 178,288 22.79% 12
*Many candidates affiliated with a major party only long enough to use its symbol in the election campaign and, if elected, abandoned it for the winning side as soon as the National Assembly met. Thus, by the end of May 1969 the Somali Youth League (SYL) parliamentary cohort had swelled from 73 to 109. In addition, the eleven Somali National Congress (SNC) members had formed a coalition with the SYL, which held 120 of the 123 seats in the National Assembly.
 
25 August 1979 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Single Party Presidential Republic

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

3,605,490

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 3,597,592 99.78%
"No" Votes 7,898 0.22%
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP)
30 December 1979 People's Assembly Election*/** (171 Seats)

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,985,838 (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

Not Available

“Yes” Votes

99.91%

“No” Votes

  0.09%

31 December 1984 People's Assembly Election** (171 Seats)

Registered Voters

4,220,466

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,214,667 (99.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       1,990

Total Valid Votes

4,212,677

“Yes” Votes

4,207,977 (99.89%)

“No” Votes

       4,700   (0.11%)

23 December 1986 Presidential Election (Siad Barre re-elected unopposed)

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

4,889,078

“Yes” Votes

4,887,592 (99.97%)

“No” Votes

       1,486   (0.03%)

*The People’s Assembly elected Siad Barre president on 26 January 1980.
**In both elections to the People's Assembly, the President was constitutionally entitled to appoint up to six additional members to the body.
 
DISINTEGRATION OF SOMALIA (1991-Present)
After the departure of President Siad Barre in early 1991, Somalia became fragmented and engaged in civil war. Warlords and rival clans clashed and claimed parts of the nation as their territory. The former British Somaliland seceded from the rest of Somalia in May 1991 as the "Republic of Somaliland", and a stable government has been set up. It is not internationally recognized and the people recently ratified a constitution that formally removes it from the Somali Republic. In 1998, a part of Northeastern Somalia declared itself the autonomous "Puntland State". The regional administration states that it wants to remain part of a Somalia. This region is also unrecognized by the international community.
 
From July 1992 to 27 August 2000, the United Nations declared Somalia a country "without a government." An internationally recognized Transitional National Government (TNG) was convened in August 2000, but the government had little control over the nation, which was mostly controlled by rival warlords and clans. The TNG was opposed by a rival pan-Somali governmental movement, known as the Somalia Reconciliation and Restoration Council (SRRC). Eventually the factions of the TNG and the SRRC were reconciled, and a new united movement - the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) - was formed in late 2004.
 
Following the end of the interim mandate of the Transitional Federal Government, the Federal Government of Somalia was established on 20 August 2012, becoming the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war.
 
26 August 2000 Presidential Election (Chosen by the Transitional Parliament)
First Round

Total Votes

238

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    3

Total Valid Votes

235

Second Round

Total Votes

238

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    2

Total Valid Votes

236

Third Round

Total Votes

238

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    1

Total Valid Votes

237

Candidate First Round Second Round Third Round
Abdulkassim Salat Hassan 78 (33.19%) 124 (52.54%) 145 (61.18%)
Abdullahi Ahmed Adow 83 (35.32%) 110 (46.61%) 92 (38.82%)
Ali Khalif Galaydh 35 (14.89%) 2 (0.85%) -
Ali Mahdi 12 (5.11%) * -
12 Others 27 (11.49%) - -
*Although Ali Mahdi qualified to participate in the second round, he withdrew from the competition.
 
10 October 2004 Presidential Election (Chosen by the Transitional Federal Parliament)
First Round

Total Votes

275

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    2

Total Valid Votes

273

Second Round

Total Votes

275

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    7

Total Valid Votes

268

Third Round

Total Votes

275

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    7

Total Valid Votes

268

Candidate First Round Second Round Third Round
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed 80 (29.30%) 147 (54.85%) 189 (70.52%)
Abdullahi Ahmed Adow 35 (12.82%) 83 (30.97%) 79 (29.48%)
Mohammed Qanyare Afrah 33 (12.09%) 38 (14.58%) -
Abdulrahman Jamma Barre 18 (6.59%) * -
Abdulkassim Salat Hassan 16 (5.86%) * -
Mohammed Hassan Adow 14 (5.13%) * -
Muse Sudi Yalahow 13 (4.76%) - -
Osman Jama Ali "Kalun" 10 (3.66%) - -
18 Others 54 (19.78%) - -
*Abdulrahman Jamma Barre, Abdulkassim Salat Hassan, and Mohammed Hassan Adow qualified to participate in the second round, but they withdrew from the competition.
 
30 January 2009 Presidential Election (Chosen by the Transitional Federal Parliament)
First Round

Total Votes

425

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    3

Total Valid Votes

422

Second Round

Total Votes

421

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    2

Total Valid Votes

419

Candidate First Round Second Round
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed 215 (50.95%) 293 (69.93%)
Maslah Mohamed Siad Barre 60 (14.22%) 126 (30.07%)
Nur Hassan Hussein 59 (13.98%) **
Ali Khalif Galaydh 31 (7.35%) **
Mohamed Osman Aden 25 (5.92%) **
Abdirahman Abdi Hussein 10 (2.37%) **
Ahmed Hashi Mahmoud 9 (2.13%) -
Awad Ahmed Asharo 5 (1.18%) -
Musa Mualim Yusuf 4 (0.95%) -
Yusuf Azhari 2 (0.47%) -
Ali Hashi Dhoore 2 (0.47%) -
Hassan Abshir Farah * -
Mohamed Mohamud Guled * -
Mohamed Ahmed Ali * -
*Hassan Abshir Farah, Mohamed Mohamud Guled, Mohamed Ahmed Ali were all approved to contest the election, but they withdrew before the first round of balloting.
**Nur Hassan Hussein, Ali Khalif Galaydh, Mohamed Osman Aden, and Abdirahman Abdi Hussein qualified to participate in the second round, but they withdrew from the competition. With only two candidates remaining, a third round of voting was not required.
 
10 September 2012 Presidential Election (Chosen by the Federal Parliament)
First Round

Total Votes

271

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    1

Total Valid Votes

270

Second Round

Total Votes

271

Abstentions/Invalid Votes

    2

Total Valid Votes

269

Candidate First Round Second Round
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud 60 (22.22%) 190 (70.63%)
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed 64 (23.70%) 79 (29.37%)
Abdiweli Mohamed Ali 30 (11.11%) *
Abdiqadir Osoble Ali 27 (10.00%) *
Abdullahi Ahmed Adow 24 (8.89%) -
Abdirahman Baadiyow 21 (7.78%) -
Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo 14 (5.19%) -
Ahmed Ismail Samatar 8 (2.96%) -
Yusuf Garaad Omar 8 (2.96%) -
Abdiwahid Elmi Gonjeh 3 (1.11%) -
Mohamed Abdiweli Sheikh Yusuf 3 (1.11%) -
Omar Salad Elmi 2 (0.74%) -
Haji Mohamed Yasin Ismail 2 (0.74%) -
Mohamed Abdullahi Omar 1 (0.37%) -
Osman Mohamed Gaal 1 (0.37%) -
Said Issa Mohamud 1 (0.37%) -
Zakariye Mohamud Haji Abdi 1 (0.37%) -
Mohamed Ahmed Salah 0 (0.00%) -
Salad Ali Jelle 0 (0.00%) -
Maslah Mohamed Siad Barre 0 (0.00%) -
Ibrahim Ali Hussein 0 (0.00%) -
Abdirahman Mohamed Abdi Hashi 0 (0.00%) -
*Abdiweli Mohamed Ali and Abdiqadir Osoble Ali qualified to participate in the second round, but they withdrew from the competition. With only two candidates remaining, a third round of voting was not required.