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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Ethiopia
 
Political Profile
Political System: Restricted Democratic Practice
President: Girma Wolde-Giorgis [Since 08 October 2001; elected 2001, re-elected 2007]. The President is elected by the House of People's Representatives for a 6-year term.
Acting Prime Minister: Hailemariam Desalegn (SEPDM) [EPRDF] [Since 20 August 2012; took office following the death of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi] The Prime minister is designated by the party in power following legislative elections.
--House of Federation (135 Seats) Members are chosen by regional state councils to serve 5-year terms.
--House of People's Representatives (547 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post (simple majority) system; members serve 5-year terms.
Political Situation since 1889
Ethiopia is an ancient country, although it has been taken into account only since 1889 when Menelik II became Emperor and established a strong central authority.
1889-1931 Absolute Monarchy
1931-1936 Traditional Monarchy (In practice, still an absolute monarchy)
1936-1941 Italian Occupation
1941-1955 Traditional Monarchy (In practice, still an absolute monarchy)
1955-1974 Traditional Monarchy
1974-1984 Military Regime
1984-1987 Military Regime & [De-Facto] One Party State (WPE)
1987-1991 One Party State (WPE)
1991-1995 Transitional Government/Multiparty Transition
1995-2010 Emerging Democracy
2010-        Restricted Democratic Practice
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 6, Civil Liberties - 6, Status: Not Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2013
Next Scheduled House of Federation Election: 2015
Next Scheduled House of People's Representatives Election: 2015
Political Parties: AAPO - All Amhara People's Organization, AEUP - All Ethiopia Unity Party, ANDENET - Unity for Democracy and Justice, ANDM - Amhara National Democratic Movement, ANDO - Argoba National Democratic Organization, ANDP - Afar National Democratic Party, APDO - Argoba People's Democratic Organization, ARENA - Union of Tigrayans for Democracy and Sovereignty, BGPDP - Benishangul-Gumuz People's Democratic Party, BGPDUF - Benishangul-Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front, EDL - Ethiopian Democratic League, EDUM - Ethiopian Democratic Unity Movement, EDUP - Ethiopian Democratic Unity Party, ESFDP - Ethiopian Social Democratic Federal Party, GPDM - Gambela People's Democratic Movement, HNL - Harari National League, OFDM - Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement, ONC - Oromo National Congress, OPC - Oromo People's Congress, OPDO - Oromo People's Democratic Organization, RE: MDSJ - Rainbow Ethiopia: Movement for Democracy and Social Justice, SDAF - Somali Democratic Alliance Forces, SEPDC - Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition, SEPDM - South Ethiopia People's Democratic Movement, SMPDUO - Sheko and Mezenger People's Democratic Unity Organization, SEPDU - Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Union, SPDP - Somali People's Democratic Party, TPLF - Tigray People's Liberation Front, UEDP-Medhin - United Ethiopia Democratic Party-Medhin, WPE - Worker's Party of Ethiopia (communist).
Coalitions: Coalition for Unity and Democracy [Contested the 2005 House of People's Representatives Election] Member parties include the All Ethiopia Unity Party (AEUP), Ethiopian Democratic League (EDL), Rainbow Ethiopia: Movement for Democracy and Social Justice (RE: MDSJ), and the United Ethiopia Democratic Party-Medhin (UEDP-Medhin); Ethiopian Federal Democratic Union Forum (MEDREK) [Contested the 2010 House of People's Representatives Election] Member parties include the Ethiopian Democratic Unity Movement (EDUM), Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM), Oromo People's Congress (OPC), Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Union (SEPDU), Somali Democratic Alliance Forces (SDAF), United Ethiopian Democratic Forces (UEDF), Unity for Democracy and Justice (ANDENET), and the Union of Tigrayans for Democracy and Sovereignty (ARENA); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) [Contested the 1994 Constituent Assembly Election and House of People's Representatives Elections held in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010] Member parties include the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM), South Ethiopia People's Democratic Movement (SEPDM), and the Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO); United Ethiopian Democratic Forces (UEDF) [Contested the 2005 House of People's Representatives Election] Member parties include the All Amhara People's Organization (AAPO), Ethiopian Democratic Unity Party (EDUP), Ethiopian Social Democratic Federal Party (ESDFP), Oromo National Congress (ONC), and the Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition (SEPDC).
 
Election Results
 
 
Legislative
--Non Partisan: 1955, 1961, 1965, 1969, 1973
--Single Party: 1987
--Multiparty: 1994, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
Constitutional Referendum: 1987
Regional State Council: 2000, 2005, 2010
 
 
Non Partisan Elections
Political parties were not allowed to function or to take part in elections.

1955 Chamber of Deputies Election

1961 Chamber of Deputies Election

1965 Chamber of Deputies Election

1969 Chamber of Deputies Election

1973 Chamber of Deputies Election

 
01 February 1987 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Sole Legal Party

Registered Voters

14,570,011

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

14,035,718 (96.3%)

Results

% of Votes

"Yes" Votes

81.00%

"No" Votes

19.00%

 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Worker’s Party of Ethiopia (WPE)

14 June 1987 National Assembly Election* (835 Seats)

*Mengistu Haile Mariam was elected President by the National Assembly on 10 September 1987.
 
05 June 1994 Constituent Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/[Coalition]

Number of Seats (547)

Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front [EPRDF]

484

Others

63

*Several opposition political parties boycotted the election.
 
07 May, 18 & 28 June 1995 House of People’s Representatives Election*

Registered Voters

21,337,379

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

20,068,508 (94.1%)

Party/[Coalition]

Number of Seats (548)*

Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front [EPRDF]

483

Independents

08

Others

46

Unconfirmed

11

*Many opposition groups, including the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), boycotted the election.
 
14 May/31 August 2000 House of People's Representatives Election*

Registered Voters

21,834,806

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

19,607,841 (89.8%)

Party/[Coalition]

Number of Seats (547)

Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front [EPRDF]

481

 

Oromo People’s Democratic Organization (OPDO)

 

183

Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM)

146

Southern Ethiopia People’s Democratic Movement (SEPDM)

112

Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF)

40

EPRDF-Affiliated Parties

37

Others

16

Independents

13

*Elections were conducted in the Somali Region on 31 August 2000.
 
15 May/21 August 2005 House of People's Representatives Election

Registered Voters

25,605,851*

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/[Coalition]

Number of Seats (547)

Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front [EPRDF]

327

Coalition for Unity and Democracy [CUD]

109

United Ethiopian Democratic Forces [UEDF]

52

Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM)

11

Benishangul-Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front (BGPDUF)

08

Afar National Democratic Party (ANDP)

08

Gambela People's Democratic Movement (GPDM)

03

Sheko and Mezenger People’s Democratic Unity Organization (SMPDUO)

01

Harari National League (HNL)

01

Somali People’s Democratic Party (SPDP)

23

Argoba National Democratic Organization (ANDO)

01

Independent

01

Vacant

02

*Registered Voter figures exclude the Somali Region. Voter registration in that region took place in July 2005, but figures are not available. Elections were conducted in the Somali Region on 21 August 2005.
 
23 May 2010 House of People's Representatives Election*

Registered Voters

31,926,520

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

29,832,190 (93.4%)

Party/[Coalition] Number of Seats (547)
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front [EPRDF] 499
Somali People's Democratic Party (SPDP) 24
Benishangul-Gumuz People's Democratic Party (BGPDP) 9
Afar National Democratic Party (ANDP) 8
Gambela People's Democratic Movement (GPDM) 3
Argoba People's Democratic Organization (APDO) 1
Harari National League (HNL) 1
Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum [MEDREK] 1
Independent 1
*Of the 46 seats not won by Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), 44 were won by parties that are considered allies of the ruling coalition. The EPRDF and its allies won 545 of the 547 seats in the election. The opposition's two seats were won by the Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum (MEDREK) coalition and an Independent.