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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in Mozambique
 
Political Profile
Political System: Emerging Democracy
President: Armando Guebuza (FRELIMO) [since 2 February 2005; elected 2004, re-elected 2009] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 5-year term. Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Prime Minister: Alberto Vaquina (FRELIMO) [since 8 October 2012] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
Assembly of the Republic [unicameral]: (250 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote in multi-member constituencies using the party-list proportional representation system; members serve 5-year terms.
Electoral Authority: National Electoral Commission
Political Situation since Independence
1975-1990 One Party State (FRELIMO)
1990-1994 Multiparty Transition
1994-2009 Democracy
2009-        Emerging Democracy
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 4, Civil Liberties - 3, Status: Partly Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2014
Next Scheduled Assembly of the Republic Election: 2014
Political Parties: ALIMO - Independent Alliance Party of Mozambique, CDU - United Congress of Democrats, FAP - Patriotic Action Front, FL - Liberal Front, FRELIMO - Mozambique Liberation Front (far-left, authoritarian), FUMO-PCD - Mozambique United Front-Democratic Convergence Party, MDM - Democratic Movement of Mozambique, MONAMO-PMSD - Mozambican National Movement-Social Democratic Party (social-democratic), PAC - African Conservative Party, PACODE - Democratic Congress Party, PADELIMO - Mozambique Democratic Liberal Party, PADEMO - Mozambique Democratic Party, PALMO - Liberal and Democratic Party of Mozambique (populist), PANADE - National Democratic Party, PANAMO - National Party of Mozambique, PANAOC - National Workers and Peasants Party, PAREDE - Democratic Reconciliation Party, PARTONAMO - Party of All Mozambican Nationalists, PASOMO - Mozambique Social Broadening Party, PAZS - Party of Freedom and Solidarity, PCN - National Convention Party, PDD - Party for Peace, Democracy, and Development, PE-MT - Ecological Party-Land Movement, PEMO - Ecological Party of Mozambique, PIMO - Independent Party of Mozambique, PPD - Popular Democratic Party, PPLM - Progressive Liberal Party of Mozambique, PPPM - Mozambique People’s Progress Party, PRD - Democratic Renewal Party, PRDM - Democratic Reconciliation Party of Mozambique, PSM - Socialist Party of Mozambique, PT - Labor Party, PUN - National Unity Party, PUR - Union for Reconciliation Party, PVM - Green Party of Mozambique, RENAMO - Mozambican National Resistance (authoritarian), SOL - Social Liberal Party, UDF - United Democratic Front, UM - Union for Change, UNAMO - Mozambique National Union.
Coalitions: Democratic Alliance of Veterans for Development (ADACD) [Contested the 2009 Assembly of the Republic Election] Member parties include the Mozambique People’s Progress Party (PPPM), Democratic Congress Party (PACODE), Socialist Party of Mozambique (PSM), and the Union for Reconciliation Party (PUR); Democratic Union (UD) [Contested the 1994 Assembly of the Republic Election] Member Parties include Liberal and Democratic Party of Mozambique (PALMO), National Democratic Party (PANADE), and National Party of Mozambique (PANAMO); [Contested the 1999 Assembly of the Republic Election] Member Parties - National Democratic Party (PANADE) and National Party of Mozambique (PANAMO); [Contested the 2004 Assembly of the Republic Election] Member Parties - National Democratic Party (PANADE) and National Party of Mozambique (PANAMO); Electoral Union Coalition (UE) [Contested the 2009 Assembly of the Republic] Member parties include the Ecological Party of Mozambique (PEMO) and the National Unity Party (PUN); Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (RENAMO-UE) [Contested the 1999 Presidential and Assembly of the Republic Elections] Coalition led by the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). Member parties include the Independent Alliance Party of Mozambique (ALIMO), Patriotic Action Front (FAP), Mozambique United Front-Democratic Convergence Party (FUMO-PCD), Mozambican National Democratic Movement-Social Democratic Party (MONAMO-PMSD), National Convention Party (PCN), Mozambique People’s Progress Party (PPPM), Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), National Unity Party (PUN), United Democratic Front (UDF), and Mozambique National Union (UNAMO); [Contested the 2004 Presidential and Assembly of the Republic Elections] Coalition led by the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). Member parties include the Independent Alliance Party of Mozambique (ALIMO), Patriotic Action Front (FAP), Mozambique United Front-Democratic Convergence Party (FUMO-PCD), Mozambican National Democratic Movement-Social Democratic Party (MONAMO-PMSD), National Convention Party (PCN), Ecological Party of Mozambique (PEMO), Mozambique People’s Progress Party (PPPM), Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), National Unity Party (PUN), and the United Democratic Front (UDF); Mozambican Opposition Union (UMO) [Contested the 1999 Assembly of the Republic Election] Member parties are the Mozambique Democratic Party (PADEMO) and Democratic Reconciliation Party of Mozambique (PRDM); Patriotic Alliance (AP) [Contested the 1994 Assembly of the Republic Election] Member Parties include the Patriotic Action Front (FAP) and Mozambican National Movement-Social Democratic Party (MONAMO-PMSD); United Front for Change and Good Governance (MBG) [Contested the 2004 Presidential and Assembly of the Republic Elections] Member parties include the Mozambique National Union (UNAMO) and the Party of All Mozambican Nationalists (PARTONAMO); Broad Opposition Front (FAO) [Contested the 2004 Assembly of the Republic Election] Member parties include the Liberal Front (FL) and African Conservative Party (PAC); Union for the Salvation of Mozambique (USAMO) [Contested the 2004 Assembly of the Republic Election] Member parties include the Socialist Party of Mozambique (PSM), Democratic Alliance for Social Restoration (PAREDE), and Union for Change (UM).
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential: 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009
Legislative
--Single Party: 1977, 1986
--Multiparty: 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009
Local: 1998, 2003
 
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO)
1977 People's Assembly Election
1986 People's Assembly Election*
*Indirect elections based on mass meetings throughout the country.
 
27-29 October 1994 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

6,148,842

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

5,402,940 (87.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   461,425

Total Valid Votes

4,941,515

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Joaquim Chissano (FRELIMO) 2,633,740 53.30%
Afonso Dhlakama (RENAMO) 1,666,965 33.73%
Wehia Ripua (PADEMO) 141,905 2.87%
Carlos Reis (UNAMO) 120,708 2.44%
Máximo Dias (MONAMO-PMSD) 115,442 2.34%
Campira Momboya (PACODE) 58,848 1.19%
Yaqub Sibindy (PIMO) 51,070 1.03%
Domingos Arouca (FUMO-PCD) 37,767 0.76%
Carlos Jeque (Independent) 34,588 0.70%
Casimiro Nhamitambo (SOL) 32,036 0.65%
Mário Machel (Independent) 24,238 0.49%
Padimbe Kamati (PPPM) 24,208 0.49%
 
27-29 October 1994 Assembly of the Republic Election [Seats Won by Province]

Registered Voters

6,148,842

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

5,404,199 (87.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   630,974

Total Valid Votes

4,773,225

Party/[Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (250)
Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) 2,115,793 44.33% 129
Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) 1,803,506 37.78% 112
Democratic Union [UD] 245,793 5.15% 9
Patriotic Alliance [AP] 93,031 1.95% -
Social Liberal Party (SOL) 79,622 1.67% -
Mozambique United Front-Democratic Convergence Party (FUMO-PCD) 66,527 1.39% -
National Convention Party (PCN) 60,635 1.27% -
Independent Party of Mozambique (PIMO) 58,590 1.23% -
Democratic Congress Party (PACODE) 52,446 1.10% -
Mozambique People’s Progress Party (PPPM) 50,793 1.06% -
Democratic Renewal Party (PRD) 48,030 1.01% -
Mozambique Democratic Party (PADEMO) 36,689 0.77% -
Mozambique National Union (UNAMO) 34,809 0.73% -
Labor Party (PT) 26,961 0.56% -
 
3-5 December 1999 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

7,099,105

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,934,352 (69.5%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   462,364

Total Valid Votes

4,471,988

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Joaquim Chissano (FRELIMO) 2,338,333 52.29%
Afonso Dhlakama (RENAMO) [RENAMO-UE] 2,133,655 47.71%
 
3-5 December 1999 Assembly of the Republic Election [Seats Won by Province]

Registered Voters

7,099,105

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,833,761 (68.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   701,438

Total Valid Votes

4,132,323

Party/[Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (250)
Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) 2,005,713 48.54% 133
Mozambican National Resistance-Electoral Union [RENAMO-UE] 1,603,811 38.81% 117
Labor Party (PT) 111,139 2.69% -
Liberal and Democratic Party of Mozambique (PALMO) 101,970 2.47% -
Social Liberal Party (SOL) 83,440 2.02% -
Mozambican Opposition Union [UMO] 64,117 1.55% -
Democratic Union [UD] 61,122 1.48% -
Mozambique Democratic Liberal Party (PADELIMO) 33,247 0.80% -
Independent Party of Mozambique (PIMO) 29,456 0.71% -
National Workers and Peasants Party (PANAOC) 24,527 0.59% -
Progressive Liberal Party of Mozambique (PPLM) 11,628 0.28% -
Mozambique Social Broadening Party (PASOMO) 2,153 0.05% -
 
1-2 December 2004 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

9,142,151

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,329,177 (36.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   177,999

Total Valid Votes

3,144,168

Candidate (Party) [Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes
Armando Guebuza (FRELIMO) 2,004,226 63.74%
Afonso Dhlakama (RENAMO) [RENAMO-UE] 998,059 31.74%
Raul Domingos (PDD) 85,815 2.73%
Yaqub Sibindy (PIMO) 28,656 0.91%
Carlos Reis (UNAMO) [MBG] 27,412 0.87%
 
1-2 December 2004 Assembly of the Republic Election [Seats Won by Province]

Registered Voters

9,142,151

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

3,321,926 (36.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   276,497

Total Valid Votes

3,045,429

Party/[Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (250)
Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) 1,889,054 62.03% 160
Mozambican National Resistance-Electoral Union [RENAMO-UE] 905,289 29.73% 90
Party for Peace, Democracy, and Development (PDD) 60,758 2.00% -
Party of Freedom and Solidarity (PAZS) 20,686 0.88% -
National Reconciliation Party (PARENA) 18,220 0.60% -
Independent Party of Mozambique (PIMO) 17,960 0.59% -
Mozambique Social Broadening Party (PASOMO) 15,740 0.52% -
Labor Party (PT) 14,242 0.47% -
Social Liberal Party (SOL) 13,915 0.46% -
Ecological Party-Land Movement (PE-MT) 12,985 0.40% -
United Front for Change and Good Governance [MBG] 11,059 0.36% -
Democratic Union (UD) 10,310 0.34% -
Green Party of Mozambique (PVM) 9,950 0.33% -
Liberal and Democratic Party of Mozambique (PALMO) 92,63 0.30% -
Democratic Reconciliation Party (PAREDE) 9,026 0.30% -
Union for the Salvation of Mozambique [USAMO] 8,661 0.29% -
Broad Opposition Front [FAO] 7,591 0.25% -
Mozambique Democratic Liberal Party (PADELIMO) 3,720 0.12% -
United Congress of Democrats (CDU) 1,252 0.04% -
Popular Democratic Party (PPD) 448 0.01% -
 
28 October 2009 Presidential Election

Registered Voters

9,871,949

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,406,093 (44.6%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   440,208

Total Valid Votes

3,965,885

Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Armando Guebuza (FRELIMO) 2,974,627 75.01%
Afonso Dhlakama (RENAMO) 650,679 16.41%
Daviz Simango (MDM) 340,579 8.59%
 
28 October 2009 Assembly of the Republic Election

Registered Voters

9,871,949

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

4,387,250 (44.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

   493,392

Total Valid Votes

3,893,858

Party/[Coalition] Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (250)
Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) 2,907,335 74.66% 191
Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) 688,782 17.69% 51
Democratic Movement of Mozambique (MDM) 152,836 3.93% 8
Party of Freedom and Development (PLD) 26,929 0.69% -
Party for Peace, Democracy, and Development (PDD) 22,410 0.58% -
Green Party of Mozambique (PVM) 19,577 0.50% -
Democratic Alliance of Veterans for Development [ADACD] 17,275 0.44% -
Party of Freedom and Solidarity (PAZS) 16,626 0.43% -
Independent Alliance Party of Mozambique (ALIMO) 14,959 0.38% -
Electoral Union Coalition [UE] 6,786 0.17% -
National Reconciliation Party (PARENA) 5,610 0.14% -
Ecological Party-Land Movement (PEC-MT) 5,267 0.14% -
Patriotic Movement for Democracy (MPD) 2,433 0.06% -
Union of Mozambican Democrats (UDM) 2,190 0.06% -
Union for Change (UM) 1,641 0.04% -
Labor Party (PT) 1,239 0.03% -
National Workers and Peasants Party (PANAOC) 852 0.02% -
Popular Democratic Party (PPD) 712 0.02% -
Social Democratic Reconciliation Party (PRDS) 399 0.01% -