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AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE

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Elections in the Comoros
 
Political Profile
Political System: Democracy
Union President: Ikililou Dhoinine [since 26 May 2011; elected 2010] The Union President is elected by direct popular vote for a 5-year term. The union presidency rotates between the three islands (Mohéli 2011-2016; Grande Comore 2016-2021; Anjouan 2021-2026). Electoral System: Two Round (Run-off).
Assembly of the Union [unicameral] (33 Seats) 24 members are elected by direct popular vote in single-member constituencies using the two round (run-off) system, 9 members are indirectly elected by the assemblies of the three islands (3 each); members serve 5-year terms.
Political Situation since Independence
1975         Emerging Democracy
1975-1982 Restricted Democratic Practice
1982-1990 One Party State (UDZIMA)
1990-1995 Emerging Democracy
1995-1996 Transitional Government
1996-1999 Emerging Democracy
1999-2002 Military Regime
2002         Transitional Government
2002-2004 Emerging Democracy
2004-        Democracy
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 3, Civil Liberties - 4, Status: Partly Free
Next Scheduled Union Presidential Election: 2015
Next Scheduled Assembly of the Union Election: 2014
Political Parties: CHUMA - Islands' Fraternity and Unity Party, DJAWABU*, DPA-Mwangaza - Dialogue Proposition Action, Espoir 2000 - Hope 2000, FD - Democratic Front, FDC - Democratic Front of the Comoros, FNJ - National Front for Justice (Islamist), FPC - Comoran Popular Front, Maecha Bora*, MDP-NGDC - Movement for Democracy and Progress-New Democratic Generation of the Comoros, MPC - Movement for the Comoros, PCDP-Djamnazi - Comoran Party for Democracy and Progress, RACHADE - Rally for Change and Democracy, RIDJA - Rally for a Development Initiative with an Enlightened Youth, RDR - Rally for Democracy and Renewal, RND - National Rally for Development (right-wing), RND-R - National Rally for Development-Renewal, SHAWIRI*, UDD - Union for Democracy and Decentralization, UDZIMA - Comoran Union for Progress, UNDC - National Union for Democracy in the Comoros, UWEZO - Realizing Freedom’s Capability.
Coalitions: Rally for Democracy and Renewal-Union for Democracy and Decentralization-Dialogue Proposition Action (RDR-UDD-DPA Mwangaza) [Contested the 1993 Federal Assembly Election]; Camp of the Autonomous Islands (CdÎA) [Contested the 2004 Assembly of the Union Election] A coalition of opposition parties organized by the Presidents of the three Islands and opposed to the Union President. The group on Grande Comore (Ngazidja) is called Mdjidjengo (autonomy).
*Translated version of the political party acronym is not available.
 
Election Results
 
 
Presidential
--Non Partisan: 1978
--Single Party: 1982, 1987
--Multiparty:
1990, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2010
Legislative
--Non Partisan: 1978
--Single Party: 1984
--Multiparty: 1992, 1993, 1996, 2004, 2009
Referendums: 1974, 1977, 1978, 1989, 1992, 2001, 2009
 
 
22 December 1974 Independence Referendum [Results by Island]
Main Points: Independence of the Territory of Comoros from France

Registered Voters

174,918

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

163,167 (93.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       130

Total Valid Votes

163,037

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes

154,184

94.57%

"No" Votes

8,853

5.43%

 
28 October 1977 Referendum
Main Points: Endorsement of Ali Soilih as President of the Comoros

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (92.2%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

151,971

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes

86,065

56.63%

"No" Votes

65,906

43.37%

 
1 October 1978 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential and Federative Republic

Registered Voters

187,124

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Results % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 99.31%
"No" Votes 0.69%
 
Non Partisan Elections
22 October 1978 Presidential Election (Ahmed Abdallah elected unopposed)

Registered Voters

197,600

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

195,290 (98.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       104

Total Valid Votes

195,186 (99.95%)

Ahmed Abdallah

195,186 (100.00%)

8 & 15 December 1978 Federal Assembly Election (38 Seats)
 
Single Party Elections
Sole Legal Party: Comoran Union for Progress (UDZIMA)
7 & 14 March 1982 Federal Assembly Election (38 Seats)
30 September 1984 Presidential Election (Ahmed Abdallah re-elected unopposed with 99.4% of the vote)
22 March 1987 Federal Assembly Election (42 Seats)
5 November 1989 Referendum
Main Points: Third presidential term, Creation of the post of Prime Minister

Registered Voters

265,222

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

259,781

"Yes" Votes

240,281(92.50%)

"No" Votes

  19,500  (7.50%)

 
March 1990 Presidential Election
First Round (4 March 1990)

Registered Voters

310,925

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

198,370 (63.8%)

Second Round (11 March 1990)

Registered Voters

315,391

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

190,074 (60.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    2,652

Total Valid Votes

187,422

Candidate (Party) First Round Second Round
% of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
Said Mohamed Djohar (UDZIMA) 23.07% 103,244 55.09%
Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (UNDC) 24.35% 84,178 44.91%
Said Ali Kemal (CHUMA) 13.71% - -
Abbas Djoussouf (MDP-NGDC) 13.57% - -
Moustoifa Said Cheikh (FDC) 9.12% - -
Ali Mroudjaé (PCDP-Djamnazi) 9.03% - -
Mohamed Hassanaly (FPC) 4.56% - -
Mohamed Ali Mbalia (PASOCO) 2.60% - -
 
7 June 1992 Constitutional Referendum [Results by Island]
Main Points: Semi-Presidential Republic, Maximum of two 5-year terms for the President, Bicameral Legislature

Registered Voters

213,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

135,750 (approx. 64%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    2,525

Total Valid Votes

133,225

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 100,792 75.66%
"No" Votes 32,433 24.34%
 
22 & 29 November 1992 Federal Assembly Election*/**

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (42)
Union of Democrats for Development (UDD) 7
Islands' Fraternity and Unity Party (CHUMA) 3
Movement for Democracy and Progress-New Democratic Generation of the Comoros (MDP-NGDC) 3
Maecha Bora 3
Comoran Party for Democracy and Progress (PCDP-Djamnazi) 3
Comoran Popular Front (FPC) 2
Others 14
Independents 7
*The Comoran Union for Progress (UDZIMA) and National Union for Democracy in the Comoros (UNDC) boycotted the election.
**Elections in six constituencies were annulled due to irregularities. Those seats were filled during by-elections held in December 1992. 
 
12-20 December 1993 Federal Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (42)
Rally for Democracy and Renewal (RDR) 28
National Union for Democracy in the Comoros (UNDC) 4
Movement for Democracy and Progress-New Democratic Generation of the Comoros (MDP-NGDC) 2
Comoran Popular Front (FPC) 2
Comoran Union for Progress (UDZIMA) 2
Comoran Party for Democracy and Progress (PCDP-Djamnazi) 1
Realizing Freedom's Capability (UWEZO) 1
Rally for Change and Democracy (RACHADE) 1
Islands' Fraternity and Unity Party (CHUMA) 1
*Elections in several constituencies were annulled due to irregularities. A repeat vote took place in these areas on 26 December 1993.
 
March 1996 Presidential Election
First Round (6 March 1996)

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (approx. 64%)

Second Round (16 March 1996)

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (61.9%)

Party (Candidate) [Coalition] First Round Second Round
% of Votes % of Votes
Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (UNDC) 21.28% 64.29%
Abbas Djoussouf (MDP-NGDC) [FRN] 15.51% 35.71%
Omar Tamou (UDZIMA) 13.26% -
Mtara Maécha (UDZIMA) 49.95% -
Said Ali Kemal (CHUMA) -
Mouzaoir Abdallah (UWEZO) -
Mahamed Adamo (RDR) -
Said Hassan Said Hachim (RACHADE) -
Others -
 
20 October 1996 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Presidential Term of 6-years, Unicameral Legislature, Island legislatures with limited authority

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (approx. 64%)

Results % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 85%
"No" Votes 15%
 
1 & 8 December 1996 Federal Assembly Election*

Registered Voters

Not Available

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party Number of Seats (43)
National Rally for Development (RND) 36
National Front for Justice (FNJ) 3
Independents 4
*The election was boycotted by most opposition parties.
 
23 December 2001 Constitutional Referendum [Results by Island]
Main Points: Federal state, rotating Union Presidency between the islands for 4-year terms, each Island granted extensive autonomy with a president and legislature

Registered Voters

230,211

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

173,521 (75.4%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    6,487

Total Valid Votes

167,034

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 128,601 76.99%
"No" Votes 38,433 23.01%
 
March/April 2002 Presidential Election
First Round (17 March 2002; Grande Comore Primary) [Results by Prefecture]

Registered Voters

150,867

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

115,078 (76.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    3,795

Total Valid Votes

111,283

Second Round (14 April 2002; National)*

Registered Voters

223,396

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  87,251 (39.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    5,700

Total Valid Votes

  81,551

Candidate (Party) First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
Azali Assoumani 44,298 39.81% 81,551 100.00%
Mahamoud Mradabi (SHAWIRI) 17,462 15.69% *
Said Ali Kemal (CHUMA) 11,881 10.68% *
Abbas Djoussouf (MDP-NGDC) 8,761 7.87% - -
Mtara Maécha (RND-R) 8,748 7.86% - -
Youssouf Said (DJAWABU) 6,752 6.07% - -
Abdallah Halifa (Espoir 2000) 4,998 4.49% - -
Ali Mroudjaé (PCDP-Djamnazi) 4,624 4.16% - -
Moustoifa Said Cheikh (FDC) 3,759 3.38% - -
*The second round was boycotted by Mahamoud Mradabi and Said Ali Kemal.
 
18 & 25 April 2004 Assembly of the Union Election

Registered Voters

225,000 (approx.)

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (approx. 65%)

Party/[Coalition] Number of Seats (18)*
Camp of the Autonomous Islands [CdÎA] 12
Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros (CRC) 6
*Seats filled through direct election; an additional 15 members are indirectly elected by the assemblies of the three islands.
 
April/May 2006 Presidential Election
First Round (16 April 2006; Anjouan Primary)*

Registered Voters

117,249

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  64,340 (54.9%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    2,873

Total Valid Votes

  61,467

Second Round (14 May 2006; National)

Registered Voters

310,177

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

177,601 (57.3%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

Not Available

Total Valid Votes

170,812

Candidate (Party) First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi 14,568 26.93% 99,112 58.02%
Mohamed Djaanfari 8,052 14.88% 23,322 13.65%
Ibrahim Halidi (MPC)** 6,376 11.79% 48,378 28.32%
Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed 5,877 10.86% - -
Nourdine Midiladji 5,221 9.65% - -
Nassuf Ahmed Abdallah 3,276 6.06% - -
Halidy Charif 2,868 5.30% - -
Said Ali Youssouf 2,353 4.35% - -
Chadhouli Abdou (RIDJA) 1,918 3.55% - -
Moussa Houmadi (FD) 960 1.77% - -
Loutfi Soulaimane (PCDP-Djamnazi) 952 1.76% - -
Abdourahmane Mohamed Ben Ali 939 1.74% - -
Mohamed Ahmed Chamanga 738 1.36% - -
*Official results published by the Constitutional Court state that 61,467 valid votes were cast in the first round, but the distribution of votes among candidates totals 54,098 (a difference of 7,369 votes). Percentage figures in the table are based on the latter number of valid votes cast. Results based on the first figure (61,467 valid votes) are as follows: Sambi (23.70%), Djaanfari (13.10%), Halidi (10.37%), El-Yachroutu Mohamed (9.56%), Midiladji (8.49%), Abdallah (5.33%), Charif (4.67%), Youssouf (3.83%), Abdou (3.12%), Houmadi (1.56%), Soulaimane (1.55%), Ben Ali (1.53%), and Chamanga (1.20%).
**Ibrahim Halidi was also supported by the Islands' Fraternity and Unity Party (CHUMA), Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros (CRC), and the Djawabu Party (DJAWABU).
 
17 May 2009 Constitutional Referendum
Main Points: Prolongation of the presidential term by one year (4-year term to 5-year term), Islands ruled by Governors instead of Presidents, Less powers for the islands, Mutual election date for Union President and the Governors

Registered Voters

334,636

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

173,196 (51.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

    7,017

Total Valid Votes

166,179

Results Number of Votes % of Votes
"Yes" Votes 156,055 93.91%
"No" Votes 10,124 6.09%
 
6 & 20 December 2009 Assembly of the Union Election

Registered Voters

363,967

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

Not Available (N/A)

Party/Political Grouping

Number of Seats (24)*

Allies of the President 20

Baobab Movement
17
Others 3
Opposition 4
*Seats filled through direct election; an additional 9 members are indirectly elected by the assemblies of the three islands.
 
November/December 2010 Presidential Election
First Round (7 November 2010; Mohéli Primary)

Registered Voters

  21,429

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

  14,378 (67.1%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

       951

Total Valid Votes

  13,427

Second Round (26 December 2010; National)

Registered Voters

384,358

Total Votes (Voter Turnout)

202,933 (52.8%)

Invalid/Blank Votes

  27,438

Total Valid Votes

175,495

Candidate First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
Ikililou Dhoinine 3,785 28.19% 106,890 60.91%
Mohamed Said Fazul 3,080 22.94% 57,587 32.81%
Abdou Djabir 1,327 9.88% 11,018 6.28%
Bianrifi Tarmidhi 1,250 9.31% - -
Saïd Dhoifir Bounou 1,154 8.59% - -
Hamada Madi Bolero 1,060 7.89% - -
Mohamed Larifou Oukacha 977 7.28% - -
Mohamed Hassanaly 523 3.90% - -
Abdoulhakin Ben Allaoui 208 1.55% - -
Zahariat Said Ahmed 63 0.47% - -