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African elections held in 2012
(Click on the Links below for election results)
No national elections were held.
26 - Senegal: The Senegalese electorate headed to the polls amidst heightened political tension over the Constitutional Court's ruling that allowed President Abdoulaye Wade to run for a third term. The outcome proved inconclusive with Wade winning just under 35 percent of the vote and ex-Prime Minister Macky Sall finishing second with 26.58 percent. The campaign period was marred by sporadic clashes between opposition protesters and security forces, but election day was largely tranquil throughout the country. Observers described the vote as well administered.
18 - Guinea-Bissau: A snap presidential election was called following the death of Malam Bacai Sanhá in January. Carlos Gomes Júnior, who resigned from his prime ministerial post to contest the vote, emerged as the front runner. Representing the ruling African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), he fell short of the majority required for a first round victory. Ex-president (2000-2003) Kumba Ialá of the Social Renewal Party (PRS) placed second in the field of nine candidates. Election day was largely incident free. Several hours after the polls closed, however, a former military intelligence chief was assassinated in the capital city of Bissau. It is unclear if the murder had any connection to the election. International observers deemed the election free, fair, and transparent, but five candidates rejected the outcome as flawed. Kumba Ialá stated that he would boycott the 29 April run-off. The country's armed forces staged a military coup d'état on 12 April and the scheduled vote did not take place.
25 - Senegal: Macky Sall resoundingly defeated Abdoulaye Wade in the presidential run-off. It was the second time in eleven years that Senegalese voters removed an incumbent president from office. Most of the defeated first round candidates endorsed Sall in the run-off. Abdoulaye Wade acknowledged defeat and congratulated Sall on his victory prior to the release of official provisional results. Barring a few minor issues, observers declared the election free, fair, and transparent.
25 - The Gambia: President Yahya Jammeh's Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction (APRC) party dominated National Assembly elections that were boycotted by all but one opposition party. The boycotting parties cited an unfair playing field and requested that the polls be postponed, which was rejected by the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC). APRC candidates were unopposed in 25 constituencies and of the 23 seats that were contested, 18 were won by the ruling party. Independent candidates won four seats, while the sole-participating opposition National Reconciliation Party (NRP) captured one seat. 
No national elections were held.
26 - Lesotho: Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili's newly-formed Democratic Congress (DC) party faced its first electoral test in this year's poll. The primary opposition challengers were the All Basotho Convention (ABC) led by Tom Thabane and the Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD), which Mosisili and his supporters deserted in February. Final results gave the DC 48 seats, followed by the ABC with 30, the LCD 26, and several smaller parties splitting the remainder. As expected, no party obtained the 61-seat majority necessary to form a government. Seizing the opportunity to end Mosisili's 14-year rule, the ABC, LCD, and Basotho National Party (BNP) agreed to form a coalition government. This election marks the first time that power has peacefully passed from an incumbent government to the opposition. Under the agreement, Thabane became Prime Minister and the post of Deputy Prime Minister went to LCD leader Mothethoa Metsing. Observers from the Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa (EISA), The Commonwealth, African Union (AU), and Southern African Development Community (SADC) monitored the election. The outcome was considered fair and transparent.
No national elections were held.
1 - Senegal: Four months after Macky Sall was elected president, a coalition of his supporters triumphed in elections to the National Assembly. The Benno Bokk Yakaar or United in Hope coalition, won 119 of 150 seats. The former ruling Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS) placed second with 12 seats. Voter turnout was low at 36.7 percent, but slightly higher than the 34.7 percent participation rate in the 2007 National Assembly election.
15 - Congo-Brazzaville: The Congolese Labor Party (PCT) and its allies dominated the first round of National Assembly elections, winning all but two of the 69 seats decided during this turn. Voter participation was extremely low, although no official figure was released. The Congolese Observatory for Human Rights (OCDH) organization estimated the turnout at only 15 percent. Observers from the African Union (AU) and the Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC) expressed satisfaction with the electoral process, but also identified shortcomings including low voter participation, the late opening of polling stations, poor vote counting procedures, and the overbearing influence of some party delegates on polling officers. The opposition's lack of access to the state media and a campaign that was heavily tilted in favor of the ruling party and its allies should also be noted. The second round of voting will take place on 5 August.
5 - Congo-Brazzaville: The Congolese Labor Party (PCT) and its allies won 117 out of 139 seats following the second round of National Assembly Elections. Independent candidates won 12 seats and seven went to the opposition Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS) party. Voting did not take place in three districts of Brazzaville, which had been affected by the death of 300 people after a munitions dump exploded in March.
31 - Angola: The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) comfortably won National Assembly Elections with the opposition providing little threat to the ruling party's 37-year reign. The MPLA won 71.86 percent of the vote and 175 out of 220 seats in the National Assembly, both figures representing a slight decline in support from the 2008 election. The rival National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) won 32 seats, followed by the newly-formed Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola-Electoral Coalition (CASA-CE) with eight. UNITA, CASA-CE, and the Social Renewal Party (PRS) challenged the results, alleging fraud and other irregularities. The country's Constitutional Tribunal rejected their claims and validated the results. The verdict from election observers was mixed overall. The African Union (AU), Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and Southern African Development Community (SADC) declared the vote credible, while Luanda-based Association of Justice, Peace, and Democracy (AJPD) as well as the Open Society Initiative of Southern Africa questioned the fairness of the process. Regardless of their final determinations, most of the missions cited unequal access to the media, problems with voter's roll, and lack of timely accreditation of election observers as areas in need of significant improvement.
10 - Somalia: One month after the approval of a new constitution, Somali parliamentarians convened to choose a new president. 22 candidates participated in the first round of balloting. The incumbent, Sheikh Sharif Ahmed, finished in the top position with 64 votes. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud placed second with 60 votes, followed by Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali (30 votes) and Abdiqadir Osoble Ali (27). As no candidate received the two-thirds majority necessary to win outright, the four aforementioned candidates qualified for the next round. Abdiweli Mohamed Ali and Abdiqadir Osoble Ali chose to withdraw from the contest. A total of 269 votes were cast in the second round with Hassan Sheikh Mohamud easily defeating Sheikh Sharif Ahmed 179 votes to 79. Mohamud was sworn in for a four-year term on 16 September.

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