Elections in Congo-Kinshasa
[Democratic Republic of the Congo]
Political System: Restricted Democratic Practice
President: Joseph Kabila [since 17 January 2001; succeeded to the presidency following the assassination of his father, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, on 16 January 2001, elected 2006, re-elected 2011] The President is elected by direct popular vote for a 5-year term. Electoral System: First Past The Post.
Acting Prime Minister: Louis Koyagialo [since 6 March 2012] The Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
--Senate (108 Seats) Members are indirectly elected by the Provincial Assemblies, former elected Presidents become Senators-for-life; members serve 5-year terms.
--National Assembly (500 Seats) Members are elected by direct popular vote through parallel systems - 440 from 109 multi-member constituencies using the party-list proportional representation system and 60 from single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post (simple majority) system; members serve 5-year terms.
Electoral Authority: National Independent Electoral Commission
Political Situation since Independence
1960-1965 Restricted Democratic Practice
1965-1967 Military Regime
1967-1990 One Party State (MPR)
1990-1997 Multiparty Transition
1997-2003 Civil War, National Fragmentation
2003-2006 Transitional Government
2006- Restricted Democratic Practice
2012 Freedom House Rating: Political Rights - 6, Civil Liberties - 6, Status: Not Free
Next Scheduled Presidential Election: 2016
Next Scheduled Senatorial Election: 2012
Next Scheduled National Assembly Election: 2016
Political Parties: AAA - Agreement with the Allies Alliance, ABAKO - Alliance of Builders of Congo, ABAKO - Alliance of the Bakongo, ABAZI - Bayanzi Alliance, ACDC - Congolese Alliance of Christian Democrats, ACDD - Christian Alliance for Democracy and Development, ACO - Congo Future, ADECO - Alliance of Congolese Democrats, ADH - Alliance of Humanist Democrats, ADR - Alliance for Development and the Republic, AFDC - Alliance of Congo Democratic Forces, AHUDE - Alliance for Humanism and Democracy, AJDS - Alliance for Justice, Development, and Solidarity, ANAMONGO - Association of the Akutshu-Anamongo, ANC-PF - Alliance of Congolese Nationalists-Platform, ANCC - Alliance of Nationalist Congolese Believers, APE - Alliance of Peasants and Ecologists, ARC - Alliance for the Renewal of Congo, ARP-PRC - Rural Progressive Alliance-Congolese Rural Party, ARREN - Action Rally for Reconstruction and National Edification, ASCCO - Association of Socialist Christians of Congo, ASSORETSHU - Association of Citizens of Tshuapa, ATCAR - Association of the Tchokwe of Congo, Angola, and Rhodesia, ATD - Congolese Labor Alliance for Development, AWABELO - Association of the Wanande of Beni and Lubero, Ba-Likolo*, BALUBAKAT - General Association of the Baluba of Katanga, BCUP - Build a United and Prosperous Congo, CAAC - Congress of Allies for Action in Congo, CAD - African Congress of Democrats, CCD - Christian Convention for Democracy, CCU - United Congolese Convention, CDC - Convention of Christian Democrats, CDD - Democratic Convention for Development, CEREA - African Regrouping Center, CF - Current Future, CNAP - National Convention of Political Action, CNC - Congolese National Congress, CNRP - National Convention for the Republic and Progress, COAKA - Kasai Coalition, CODECO - Coalition of Congolese Democrats, CODELI - Convention for Democracy and Liberty, COFEDEC - Federalist Christian Democracy-Convention of Federalists for Christian Democracy, CONACO - Congolese National Convention, CONAKAT - Confederation of Tribal Associations of Katanga, CONGO-PAX - Party for Peace in Congo, CP - Camp of the Fatherland (also known as the "Forces of the Future" party), CPR - Convention of Progressives for the Republic, CRD - Convention for the Republic and Democracy, CRP - Convention for Renaissance and Progress, CTS-UPB - Party of Traditional Chiefs and Sympathizers-Basonge Progressive Union, CVP - Conscience and People's Will, DC - Christian Democracy, DCF-COFEDEC - Federalist Christian Democracy-Convention of Federalists for Christian Democracy, DCF-N - Federalist Christian Democracy-Nyamwisi, DDC - Dynamics for Democracy in Congo, DECO - Congolese Democrat Party, ECiDé - Commitment to Citizenship and Development, ECT - Awakening Conscience for Labor and Development, ENVOL - Volunteers Together for Development Party of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, FC - Common Front, FC - Foundation of Congo, FIDEC - Independent Front for Christian Democracy, FIS - Front for Social Integration, FNI - Nationalist and Integrationist Front, FNSP - National Public Salvation Front, FONUS - Innovative Forces for Union and Solidarity, FOP - Force of the People, FR - Forces of Renewal, FROCONKI - Common Front of North Kivu, FRODECO - Front of Congolese Democrats, FRONKAT - Katangan Front, FSDD - Front of Social Democrats for Development, FSIR - Social Front of Independent Republicans, GR - Republican Generations, GSCO - Generation for Solidarity and the Development of Congo, LDIC - League for the Defense of Citizens' Interests, LUKA - Kwangolese Union for Independence and Liberty, MAI-MAI - Self-Defense Movement for Integrity and the Maintenance of Independent Authority, MARC-PTF - Action Movement for the Resurrection of Congo-Fraternity and Labor Party, MCR - Congolese Movement for Renaissance, MCSD - Christian Movement for Solidarity and Democracy, MD - Movement of Democrats, MDD - Movement for Democracy and Development, MEDA - Movement for the Democratic Evolution of Africa, MEDERCO - Movement for the Evolution and Development of the Rural Economy of Congo, MIP - Movement for the Integrity of People, MIR - Movement of Independent Reformists, MLC - Movement for the Liberation of Congo, MLP - Lumumbist Progressive Movement, MMM - Maï-Maï Movement, MNC-K - Congolese National Movement-Kalonji, MNC-L - Congolese National Movement-Lumumba, MPCR - Congolese People's Movement for the Republic, MPR - Popular Movement of the Revolution, MPR-Fait Privé - Popular Movement of the Revolution-Fait Privé, MPS - Popular Movement of Sankuru, MSC - Movement of Solidarity for Change, MSDD - Solidarity Movement for Democracy and Development, MSR - Social Movement for Renewal, MUB - Basonge Unity Movement, Mwinda-Bakongo**, NAD - New Alliance of Democrats, NBP - Our Beautiful Country, Ngwaka Association*, ODAPR - Autonomous Organization of the People for Renewal, OPEKA - Political Organization of Kasavubists and Allies, PA - Party for Action, PADESO - Rally for Economic and Social Development, PALU - Unified Lumumbist Party, PANACO - Congolese National Party, PANADER - National Party for Democracy and the Republic, PANADI - Party of Nationalists for Integral Development, PANAP - National People's Party, PANU - National Alliance Party for Unity, PAR - Renewal Party, PARC - Christian Republican Party, PARECO-PAP - Coalition of Congolese Resistance Patriots, PCB - Congolese Party for the People's Well-Being, PCBG - Congolese Party for Good Governance, PCD - Congolese Party for Development, PCDI - Christian Democrat Party for the Development of the Congolese, PDC - Christian Democrat Party, PDC - Congolese Democratic Party, PDSC - Democratic Social Christian Party, PEC-LES VERTS - Rally of Congolese Ecologists-The Greens, PECO - Congolese Ecologist Party, PNP - National Progress Party, PNR - National Party for Reform, PNRD - National Party of Renewal for Development, PPPD - People's Party for Peace and Democracy, PPRD - People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy, PR - Reformist Party, PRC - Congolese Republican Party, PRM - Maï-Maï Resistance Patriots, PRP - People's Revolution Party, PSA - African Solidarity Party, PSA-Kamitatu - African Solidarity Party-Kamitatu, PSDA - African Socialist Democratic Party, PT - Labor Party, PTL - Liberal Labor Party, PUNA - National Unity Party, R2D - Renewal for Development and Democracy, RADECO - Rally of Congolese Democrats, RADESO - Rally for Economic and Social Development, RAPELU - Luba People's Rally, PARECO - Congolese Regrouping Party, RCD - Congolese Rally for Democracy, RCD/K-ML - Congolese Rally for Democracy/Kisangani-Liberation Movement, RCDN - Rally of Congolese Democrats and Nationalists, RCPC - Rally of Christians for the Congo, RDLK - Democratic Rally of Lac-Kwango-Kwilu, RDP - Regrouping of Democrats for Progress, RDPC - Rally for the Defense of Congolese People, RDPR - Rally of Democrats for the Republic, RECO - Congolese Regrouping, RECO - Party for the Renaissance of Congo, RENAISSANCE PE - Electoral Platform Renaissance, RNS - Rally for a New Society, RRC - Rally for the Reconstruction of Congo, RSF - Rally of Social and Federalist Forces, RUDEC - Rally for Unity, Development, and the Environment of Congo, SCODE - Congolese Solidarity for Democracy, SET - Support for Étienne Tshisekedi, SODENA - Solidarity for National Development, UB - Budjala Union, UCC - Congolese Union for Change, UCL - Congolese Union for Liberty, UCP - Congolese Union for Progress, UCRJ - Christian Union for Renewal and Justice, UDA-Lubaya - African Democratic Union-Lubaya, UDCO - Union for the Development of Congo, UDECF - Union of Federalist Christian Democrats, UDECO - Congolese Democratic Union, UDEMO - Union of Mobutist Democrats, UDN - Union for the Development of the Nation, UDPS-Kibassa - Union for Democracy and Progress-Kibassa, UDPS-Tshisekedi - Union for Democracy and Progress-Tshisekedi, UDR - Union for the Defense of the Republic, UFC - Union of Forces for Change, ULDC - Liberal Christian Democrats Union, ULPD - Union for Liberty, Peace, and Development, UMR - Union for a Republican Majority, UN - Union for the Nation, UNADEC - National Union of Christian Democrats, UNADEF - National Union of Federalist Democrats, UNAFEC - Union of Nationalist Federalists of Congo, UNC - Congolese National Union, UNC - Union for the Congolese Nation, UNEBAFI - Economic Union of the Babembe of Fizi, Unicentrale*, UNILAC - Union of the Citizens of Lake Leopold II, UNIMO - Mongo Union, UNIR - Union for the Republic, UPC - Union of Congolese Patriots, UPNAC - Union of Congolese Nationalist Patriots, UPPA - People's Union for Peace and Love, UPRDI - People's Union for the Republic and Integral Development, URDC - Union for the Revival and Development of Congo, UREC - Union for the Reconstruction of Congo, USC - Congolese Socialist Union, USL - Liberal Socialist Union.
Coalitions: Congolese National Convention-led Coaliton [Contested the 1965 Chamber of Representatives Election] An alliance of 49 political parties led by the Congolese National Convention (CONACO); Coalition of Congolese Democrats (CODECO) [Contested the 2006 Presidential Election] A coalition of 30 political parties that supported Pierre Pay-Pay wa Syakassighe's candidacy.
*Political party acronym not available.
**A progressive, breakaway faction of the Alliance of the Bakongo (ABAKO) party.
Last Updated: 10 October 2012
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